Volume 2.42 | Oct 29

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.42 October 29, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Chitinase-Like Proteins Promote IL-17-Mediated Neutrophilia in a Tradeoff between Nematode Killing and Host Damage
Scientists found that Ym1 and Ym2 induced the accumulation of neutrophils through the expansion of γδ T cell populations that produced interleukin 17 (IL-17). Analysis of a nematode infection model, in which the parasite migrates through the lungs, revealed that the IL-17 and neutrophilic inflammation induced by Ym1 limited parasite survival but at the cost of enhanced lung injury. [Nat Immunol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Central Role for Notch in Effector CD8+ T Cell Differentiation
Activated CD8+ T cells choose between terminal effector cell (TEC) or memory precursor cell fates. Investigators found that the signaling receptor Notch controls this ‘choice’. Notch promoted the differentiation of immediately protective TECs and was correspondingly required for the clearance of acute infection with influenza virus. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus Infection Induces Protein A-Mediated Immune Evasion in Humans
Acutely activated B cells, or plasmablasts, were analyzed to dissect the ongoing immune response to infection through the production of monoclonal antibodies. The B cells that were activated by infection had a highly limited response. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Modulation of CD112 by the Alphaherpesvirus gD Protein Suppresses DNAM-1-Dependent NK Cell-Mediated Lysis of Infected Cells
Investigators report that the gD glycoprotein of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus and herpes simplex virus-2 displays previously uncharacterized immune evasion properties toward natural killer (NK) cells. Expression of gD during infection or transfection led to degradation and consequent down-regulation of CD112, a ligand for the activating NK receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Recovery from an Acute Infection in C. elegans Requires the GATA Transcription Factor ELT-2
Scientists established a Caenorhabditis elegansSalmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, they found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. [PLoS Genet] Full Article | Press Release

Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection after Nasopharyngeal Colonization Requires both Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses
The authors show that naturally acquired protective immunity to S. pneumoniae lung infection requires both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, providing a template for the design of improved vaccines that can specifically prevent pneumonia or acute bronchitis. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

Conditional IL-4/IL-13-Deficient Mice Reveal a Critical Role of Innate Immune Cells for Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Helminths
Scientists compared the immune response to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in wild-type, T cell-specific interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13-deficient and general IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

CD8 T Cells in Innate Immune Responses: Using STAT4-Dependent but Antigen-Independent Pathways to Gamma Interferon during Viral Infection
The authors provide novel insights into the endogenous regulation of cytokine and proliferative responses and demonstrate conditioning of innate immunity by experience. [mBio] Full Article | Press Release

HIV

A Gene-Specific Role for the Ssu72 RNAPII CTD Phosphatase in HIV-1 Tat Transactivation
Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Ssu72, like positive transcription elongation factor-b and AFF4, is recruited by Tat to the integrated HIV-1 proviral promoter in TNF-α signaling 2D10 T cells and leaves the elongation complex prior to the termination site. [Genes Dev] Abstract | Press Release | Video

Fetal Exposure to HIV-1 Alters Chemokine Receptor Expression by CD4+ T Cells and Increases Susceptibility to HIV-1
Researchers compared the expression of chemokine receptors on cord blood CD4+ T cells from uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected women (HIV-1-exposed) and healthy controls. They assessed whether the inflammatory phenotype was associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 and detected higher levels of p24 upon in in vitro infection of stimulated CD4+ T cells of HIV-1-exposed infants. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Complex TCR Repertoire Dynamics Underlie the CD8+ T-Cell Response to HIV-1
Scientists conducted a comprehensive analysis of viral sequence variation and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire composition across multiple epitope specificities in a group of antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. [J Virol] Abstract

MAIT Cells Are Depleted Early but Retain Functional Cytokine Expression in HIV Infection
Scientists studied longitudinal blood samples from 31 HIV-infected subjects for mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cell numbers, phenotype and function using both standard Vα7.2/CD161 surface markers and an MR1 tetramer. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
HIV/Dendritic Cell Interaction: Consequences in the Pathogenesis of HIV Infection
The authors delve into the mechanisms involved in HIV/dendritic cell interactions that govern viral persistence, cellular trafficking, transmission and restriction, compiling the present knowledge on these subjects and attempting to postulate how some uncertain pathways may shape up and intertwine. [AIDS Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
UTHealth Research Shows Mushroom Extract, AHCC, Helpful in Treating HPV
A Japanese mushroom extract appears to be effective for the eradication of human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a pilot clinical trial at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Medical School. [Press release from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston discussing research presented at the 11th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO), Houston] Press Release

GeoVax to Present HIV Vaccine Clinical Trial Data
GeoVax Labs, Inc. announced the presentation “Elicitation of Immune Responses by a DNA/MVA Vaccine in ART Treated Patients in a Treatment Interruption Trial.” [Press release from GeoVax Labs, Inc. discussing research presented at the HIV Research for Prevention 2014: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIVR4P) Conference, Cape Town] Press Release | Video

In South Africa, RV144 HIV Vaccine Regimen Induces Immune Responses Similar to Those Seen in Thailand
The investigational HIV vaccine regimen that showed a modestly protective effect in the landmark ArchiveRV144 clinical trial conducted in Thailand was shown to be safe and elicited robust immune responses when tested among 100 healthy adults in South Africa. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases discussing research presented at the HIV Research for Prevention 2014: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIVR4P) Conference, Cape Town] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Temple and CHOP to Explore Eradicating HIV from Hiding Places in the Brain
Temple University and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have received a joint $4.3 million, four-year grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to investigate new methods to eradicate HIV that lurks in brain cells despite conventional antiviral treatments. [Temple University] Press Release

Partnerships, Cancer Research in Malawi to Expand with New Grant
UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center and the UNC Institute for Global Health & Infectious Diseases have received a $3.7 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study the growing worldwide cancer problem and expand the University’s efforts in Malawi to study and treat HIV-associated cancers. [UNC Lineberger] Press Release

Colorado State University Center to Assist in Ebola Vaccine Development and Manufacturing
Colorado State University’s Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing and Academic Resource Center has been awarded $2 million by the U.S. Department of Defense to aid in the development and manufacturing of a vaccine to protect against infection by filoviruses, including the Ebola and Marburg viruses. [Colorado State University] Press Release

Biomarker Discovery Company, Antigen Discovery Inc., Awarded an NIH Phase I Small Business Innovation Research Grant to Develop a Pan-HIV Protein Microarray Chip
Antigen Discovery Inc. announced the one-year $225,000 award will fund the development of a Pan-HIV Protein Microarray Chip, which will contain every protein in all of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 subtypes and aid in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapies to prevent HIV infection. [Antigen Discovery Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Immunotech Laboratories, Inc. Enters into Agreement to Market Potential Ebola Virus Disease Treatment and Implement Strategy for Company’s ITV-1 Infectious Diseases Treatment in Africa
Immunotech Laboratories, Inc. announced that they have successfully completed negotiations with Uldic Investment Pvt. Ltd. to pursue the development of market opportunities related to the deadly Ebola virus, and to conduct human clinical trials using the Company’s HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C virus treatment, Immune Therapeutic Vaccine-1 (ITV-1), in Sub-Saharan West Africa. [Immunotech Laboratories, Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

GSK Update on Current Development Status of the GSK/NIH Ebola Vaccine Candidate
With the Ebola crisis in west Africa continuing, GSK is working closely with the World Health Organization, regulators and other partners to respond to the outbreak, to accelerate development of our investigational Ebola vaccine and to ramp up production as quickly as possible. [GlaxoSmithKline plc] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
The Ebola Epidemic: Is There a Way Out?
The International Union of Immunology Societies published a statement calling for urgent and adequate funding of vaccine candidates in clinical trials and speedy implementation of immunization in African countries. [The International Union of Immunology Societies] Press Release | Report

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2014 Pathology Congress
December 2-4, 2014
London, United Kingdom

NEW Keystone Symposium – Viral Immunity
January 11-16, 2015
Breckenridge, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Host Genetic Factors and Activity of Endogenous Retroviruses (Medical Research Council)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Mucosal Immune System in Chronic and Infectious Disease (Griffith Health Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Immune Responses to HSV (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Associate Professor – Molecular Immunology (Chiba University)

Professorship Position – Virology (Medical University of Vienna)

PhD Position – Childhood Respiratory Virus Infections and Development of Asthma (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

Research Fellow – Gene Expression of Immune Cells in Response to Infection (The University of Nottingham)

PhD Position – Innate Immunity / Microscopy (University Duisburg-Essen)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Parasitology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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