Volume 2.40 | Oct 15

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.40 October 15, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Researchers Describe How Lungs Stand Guard against the Flu
Researchers describe how different types of immune system cells interact to generate cells in the lungs capable of mounting an effective counterattack on the invading virus, regardless of the types of proteins on the virus’ surface. [Press release from Yale University discussing online prepublication in Immunity]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Trypanosoma cruzi Flagellum Is Discarded via Asymmetric Cell Division following Invasion and Provides Early Targets for Protective CD8+ T Cells
Scientists discovered that T. cruzi trypomastigotes discard their flagella via an asymmetric cellular division. The flagellar proteins liberated become among the earliest parasite proteins to enter the MHC-I processing pathway in infected cells. Paraflagellar rod protein PAR4-specific CD8+ T cells detect infected host cells >20 hours earlier than immunodominant trans-sialidase-specific T cells. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

A Novel TLR2 Agonist from Bordetella pertussis Is a Potent Adjuvant that Promotes Protective Immunity with an Acellular Pertussis Vaccine
The authors report the identification and characterization of novel Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activating lipoproteins from B. pertussis. These proteins contain a characteristic N-terminal signal peptide that is unique to Gram-negative bacteria and they demonstrate that one of these lipoproteins, BP1569, activates murine dendritic cells and macrophages and human mononuclear cells via TLR2. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

CD4+ T Cells Promote Antibody Production but Not Sustained Affinity Maturation during Borrelia burgdorferi Infection
Researchers evaluated the induction and functionality of B. burgdorferi (Bb) infection-induced CD4 TFH cells. They report that CD4 T cells were effectively primed and TFH cells induced after Bb infection. [Infect Immun] Abstract

Intestine-Derived Clostridium leptum Induces Murine Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells In Vitro
To investigate whether infection with the C. leptum sp. can specifically induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) and/or tolerogenic dendritic cells, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were cultured in the presence or absence of C. leptum then co-cultured with CD4+CD25 Tregs or not. [Hum Immunol] Abstract


Vaginal Challenge with a SIV-Based Dual Reporter System Reveals that Infection Can Occur throughout the Upper and Lower Female Reproductive Tract
Using a high dose of a single round non-replicating SIV-based vector containing a novel dual reporter system, scientists determined the sites of infection by the inoculum using the rhesus macaque vaginal transmission model. JRFL enveloped virions infect diverse CD4 expressing cell types, with T cells resident throughout the female reproductive tract representing the primary target. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Editorial

Early HIV-1 Infection Is Associated with Reduced Frequencies of Cervical Th17 Cells
The impact of early HIV infection on cervical CD4+ T cell populations in humans remains poorly described. Researchers analyzed cytobrush-derived immune cells by flow cytometry and cytokines in cervicovaginal lavage from participants in early HIV, chronic HIV, and HIV uninfected controls. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Sulfonation Pathway Inhibitors Block Reactivation of Latent HIV-1
Investigators show that chemical inhibitors of the sulfonation pathway prevent virus reactivation, both in latently infected J-Lat and U1 cell lines and in a primary human CD4+ T cell model of latency. [Virology] Abstract

The Role of Extended-Release Niacin on Immune Activation and Neurocognition in HIV-Infected Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial
Investigators designed a crossover proof-of-concept study to assess supplementation with an extended-release form of niacin in combination with antiretroviral therapy, compared to antiretroviral therapy alone, on T-cell immune activation as defined by changes in the percentage of CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ T-cells. [Trials]
Abstract | Full Article

Identification of an Env-Defective HIV-1 Mutant Capable of Spontaneous Reversion to a Wild-Type Phenotype in Certain T-Cell Lines
Scientists demonstrate that an HIV-1 variant containing a G367R substitution within the CD4 binding site of gp120 was non-infectious as free virus in culture but was infectious when infected cells were co-cultured with certain T cell lines or when cells were transfected by a relevant proviral plasmid. [Virol J] Abstract | Full Article

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NK Cell Receptor Imbalance and NK Cell Dysfunction in HBV Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma
The authors focus on the role of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in anti-tumor immune responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), particularly hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. They discuss specifically how tumor cells evade attack from NK cells and how emerging understanding of NK receptors may aid the development of novel treatments for HCC. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Genocea Presents Complete Phase I/IIa Data for HSV-2 Immunotherapy at IDWeek
Genocea Biosciences, Inc. announced the presentation of final data from the Phase I/IIa study of GEN-003, the company’s immunotherapy candidate for treatment of genital herpes. [Press release from Genocea Biosciences, Inc. discussing research presented at IDWeek 2014™, Philadelphia] Press Release

Bristol-Myers Squibb Presents Data from Multiple New Studies Showcasing Continued Innovation in Virology
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company announced that ten abstracts have been accepted for presentation. The breadth of data presented highlights Bristol-Myers Squibb’s commitment to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over chronic viral diseases. [Press release from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company discussing research presented at IDWeek 2014™, Philadelphia] Press Release

Durata Therapeutics Presents New Data for Dalvance™
Durata Therapeutics announced a summary of presentation data from its recently launched product, Dalvance™ (dalbavancin) for injection. [Press release from Durata Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at IDWeek 2014™, Philadelphia] Press Release

MOLOGEN AG Presents EnanDIM: A New Generation of Immunomodulators
MOLOGEN has presented preclinical data on its EnanDIM technology. Potential applications include the fields of anti-tumor and anti-infective therapies. [Press release from MOLOGEN AG discussing research presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Society (OTS), San Diego] Press Release

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Johns Hopkins Wins Multimillion-Dollar Grant to Lead Development of Anti-HIV Enema
The National Institutes of Health have awarded $21 million to researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and seven other institutions to develop an antimicrobial solution that prevents HIV infection following anal intercourse. [Johns Hopkins University] Press Release

Johns Hopkins Pediatrician Wins NIH Transformative Research Award
Johns Hopkins Children’s Center infectious disease specialist Sanjay Jain, M.D., has earned a Transformative Research Award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his ongoing work to design a new noninvasive imaging method that can rapidly identify a wide variety of bacterial infections and monitor their response to treatment in real time. [Johns Hopkins University] Press Release

Auspherix and Domainex Announce Collaboration to Develop New Drugs to Treat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Infection
Domainex Ltd. and Auspherix Pty Ltd announced a collaboration that will progress Auspherix’s novel anti-infective drug discovery program towards the nomination of a clinical candidate. [Domainex Ltd.] Press Release

Shantha’s Investigational Rotavirus Vaccine Enters Phase III Clinical Trials in India
Sanofi Pasteur announced the start of a Phase III clinical trial in India for its investigational rotavirus vaccine, developed and manufactured by its affiliate Shantha Biotechnics. [Sanofi Pasteur SA] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cell Symposia: The Multifaceted Roles of Type 2 Immunity
December 10-12, 2014
Bruges, Belgium

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Professorship Position – Virology (Medical University of Vienna)

NEW PhD Position – Childhood Respiratory Virus Infections and Development of Asthma (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

NEW Research Fellow – Gene Expression of Immune Cells in Response to Infection (The University of Nottingham)

PhD Position – Innate Immunity / Microscopy (University Duisburg-Essen)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Parasitology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Pathogenic Mechanisms during Alphavirus Infections (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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