Volume 2.39 | Oct 8

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.39 October 8, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
HIV-Specific Humoral Responses Benefit from Stronger Prime in Phase Ib Clinical Trial
Researchers examined the priming dose and administration order of heterologous vectors in HIV Vaccine Trials Network 078, a randomized, double-blind Phase Ib clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost regimens, with a New York vaccinia HIV clade B vaccine and a recombinant adenovirus 5-vectored vaccine. [J Clin Invest] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Lung-Residing Myeloid-Derived Suppressors Display Dual Functionality in Murine Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Researchers examined the presence and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during experimental pulmonary tuberculosis to further understand the immunological consequences of direct interactions between MDSCs and lung bacterial pathogens. [Am J Respir Crit Care Med] Abstract

CD4+CXCR5+ T-Cells in Chronic HCV Infection Produce Less IL-21, yet Are Efficient at Supporting B-Cell Responses
Researchers investigated the function of CD4+CXCR5+ T-follicular helper cells and B-cells in liver and in peripheral blood of chronic HCV patients. [J Hepatol] Abstract

IL-17A Acts Synergistically with IFN-γ to Promote Protection against Leishmania infantum Infection
The authors evaluated whether IL-17 participates in the host immune response to L. infantum. IL-17RA-/- mice were more susceptible to infection and also exhibited reduced inflammatory infiltration and CD4+IFN-γ+ T cell frequencies than WT mice. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Anti-GITR Agonist Therapy Intrinsically Enhances CD8 T Cell Responses to Chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV), thereby Circumventing LCMV-Induced Downregulation of Costimulatory GITR Ligand on APC
Scientists investigated the potential of therapeutic stimulation of GITR using agonistic anti-GITR Ab. Anti-GITR treatment at day 21 postinfection increased the frequency and number of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells, resulting in increased in vivo CTL activity and a concomitant decrease in viral load, despite the persistence of PD-1 expression. [J Immunol] Abstract

Severe Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection Induces Thymic Atrophy through Activating Innate CD8+CD44hi T Cells by Upregulating IFN-γ
Scientists show that severe infection of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 led to progressive thymic atrophy and CD4+CD8+ double-positive T-cells depletion due to apoptosis. The viruses were present in thymus, where they activated thymic innate CD8+CD44hi single-positive thymocytes to secrete a large amount of IFN-γ. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Brugia malayi Microfilariae Induce a Regulatory Monocyte/Macrophage Phenotype that Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Response
Researchers determined whether blood microfilariae directly act on blood monocytes and in vitro generated macrophages to induce a regulatory phenotype that interferes with innate and adaptive responses. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

HIV

Aggregate Complexes of HIV-1 Induced by Multimeric Antibodies
Antibody mediated viral aggregation may impede viral transfer across mucosal surfaces by hindering viral movement in mucus, preventing transcytosis, or reducing inter-cellular penetration of epithelia thereby limiting access to susceptible mucosal CD4 T cells and dendritic cells. The potential of neutralizing and non-neutralizing IgG and IgA monoclonal antibodies to induce HIV-1 aggregation was assessed by dynamic light scattering. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Linking Pig-Tailed Macaque Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Haplotypes and Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Escape Mutations in SIV Infection
Researchers successfully identified six known cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) escape mutations within three Mane-A1*084-restricted epitopes. The approach also identified over 70 new SIV polymorphisms linked to a variety of MHC-I haplotypes. Using functional CD8 T cell assays they confirmed that one of these associations corresponded to a CTL epitope. [J Virol] Abstract

Vaccine-Induced CD107a+ CD4+ T Cells Are Resistant to Depletion Following AIDS Virus Infection
Scientists show that vaccine-elicited CD4+ T cells expressing CD107a are relatively resistant to depletion in a macaque AIDS model. Comparison of virus-specific CD107a, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-2 responses in CD4+ T cells of vaccinated macaques pre- and one-week post-challenge showed a significant reduction in the CD107a but not the CD107a+ subset after virus exposure. [J Virol] Abstract

Characterization of Programmed Death-1 Homologue-1 (PD-1H) Expression and Function in Normal and HIV Infected Individuals
Investigators show that overexpression of the newly described co-stimulatory molecule PD-1H in human monocyte/macrophages is sufficient to induce spontaneous secretion of multiple cytokines. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
γδ T Cell Surveillance via CD1 Molecules
The authors discuss potential implications on the notion that non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecules may function as important restricting elements of γδ T cell receptor specificity, and on our understanding of γδ T cell activation and function. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

siRNA Nanotherapeutics: A Trojan Horse Approach against HIV
The authors discuss the nanocarrier-mediated delivery of siRNA delivery as well as highlighted the scope of siRNA-mediated gene-silencing technology for improved HIV treatment. [Drug Discov Today] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
The Medicines Company Infectious Disease Portfolio Data to Be Presented
The Medicines Company announced that data from its infectious disease portfolio will be presented. [Press release from The Medicines Company discussing research to be presented at IDWeek 2014, Philadelphia] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Atox Bio Awarded Contract Worth Up to $24 Million for the Development of AB103 by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)
Atox Bio announced that BARDA has awarded Atox Bio with a contract valued up to $24 million and 4.5 years for the development of AB103 to treat necrotizing soft tissue infections and potentially infections caused by biothreats and public health threats that end in sepsis. [Atox Bio] Press Release

Alere Awarded U.S. Government Contract to Advance Development of Point-of-Care Molecular Diagnostic for Pandemic Influenza
Alere Inc. announced that it has entered into a contract with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to develop diagnostic countermeasures for pandemic influenza. Under the terms of the 3.5 year contract, BARDA will provide up to $12.9 million to support the development of a rapid, molecular, low-cost influenza diagnostic device with PCR-like performance at the point-of-care. [Alere Inc.] Press Release

GeoVax Developing Vaccines for Epidemic Response as Well as for Routine Immunization
GeoVax Labs, Inc. announced that it has initiated a new program for the development of a safe and effective vaccine to prevent Ebola infection. [GeoVax Labs, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS): 9th African Immunology Conference
November 30-December 4, 2014
Nairobi, Kenya

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Position – Innate Immunity / Microscopy (University Duisburg-Essen)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Parasitology (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunometabolism (INSERM)

PhD Studentship – Infection Biology (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Pathogenic Mechanisms during Alphavirus Infections (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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