Volume 2.37 | Sep 24

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.37 September 24, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Insights on an Ancient Plague Could Improve Treatments for Infections
Investigators detail how the Yersinia pestis bacteria that cause bubonic plague hitchhike on immune cells in the lymph nodes and eventually ride into the lungs and the blood stream, where the infection is easily transmitted to others. [Press release from Duke University Health System discussing publication in Immunity]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Abrogate Established Hepatitis C Virus Infection
Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can prevent hepatitis C virus infection in vitro and in animal models. Researchers demonstrate that three broadly nAbs delivered with adeno-associated viral vectors can confer protection against viral challenge in humanized mice. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Dissolving Microneedle Delivery of Nanoparticle Encapsulated Antigen Elicits Efficient Cross-Priming and Th1 Immune Responses by Murine Langerhans Cells
Scientists availed of polymeric dissolving microneedle (MN) arrays laden with nano-encapsulated antigen to specifically target skin dendritic cell (DC) networks. Following MN immunization, Langerhans cells constituted the major skin DC subset capable of cross-priming antigen-specific CD8+ T cells ex vivo. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Perinatal Listeria monocytogenes Susceptibility despite Preconceptual Priming and Maintenance of Pathogen-Specific CD8+ T Cells during Pregnancy
Researchers show that protection against secondary L. monocytogenes infection in non-pregnant mice is sharply moderated during allogeneic pregnancy because significantly more bacteria are recovered from maternal tissues, despite the numerical and functional preservation of pathogen-specific CD8+ T cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Cellular Requirements for Systemic Control of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections in Mice
The authors address the contributions of different immune cell subsets and their ability to contribute to the control and clearance of the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a murine model. [Infect Immun] Abstract


Tissue Myeloid Cells in SIV-Infected Primates Acquire Viral DNA through Phagocytosis of Infected T Cells
The viral accessory protein Vpx, expressed by certain simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and HIVs), is thought to improve viral infectivity of myeloid cells. Scientists infected 35 Asian macaques and African green monkeys with viruses that do or do not express Vpx and examined viral targeting of cells in vivo. [Immunity] Abstract

IL-23 Produced by Myeloid Dendritic Cells Contributes to T-Cell Dysfunction in HIV-1 Infection by Inducing SOCS1 Expression
The mechanism of myeloid dendritic cell (mDC)-mediated impaired T-cell function was investigated during HIV infection. HIV or gp120 were found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced mDC maturation and cause defects in allogeneic T-cell proliferation, IL-2 and IFNγ production and pSTAT1 expression. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Recombination-Mediated Escape from Primary CD8+ T Cells in Acute HIV-1 Infection
A major immune evasion mechanism of HIV-1 is the accumulation of non-synonymous mutations in and around T cell epitopes, resulting in loss of T cell recognition and virus escape. Scientists analyzed primary CD8+ T cell responses and virus escape in a HLA B*81 expressing subject who was infected with two transmitted/founder viruses from a single donor. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Changes in Cellular Immune Activation and Memory T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Zambian Children Receiving HAART
HAART significantly reduced levels of immune activation and effector memory CD4+ T cells, and promoted reconstitution of naive T cells and IL-7Rα-expressing CD8+ T cells [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

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Hepatic Effector CD8+ T-Cell Dynamics
The author highlights recent data on how effector CD8+ T cells traffic within the liver and discusses the potential for novel imaging techniques to shed light on this important aspect of hepatitis B virus pathogenesis. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Antibody B Cell Responses in HIV-1 Infection
The author discusses how an improved understanding of broadly neutralizing antibody generation may provide invaluable insight into the fundamental mechanisms governing adaptive B cell responses to viruses, and how this knowledge is currently contributing to the development of vaccine and therapeutic strategies against HIV-1. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

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Initiative Seeks to Develop Therapies to Combat Ebola
Vanderbilt University researchers have partnered with Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc. to develop new human antibody therapies for people exposed to the deadly Ebola and Marburg viruses. [Vanderbilt University] Press Release

MedImmune Receives Fast Track Designation from FDA for Development of MEDI3902 for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia
MedImmune announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation to the company’s investigational monoclonal antibody MEDI3902 for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [MedImmune, LLC] Press Release

T2 Biosystems Receives FDA Authorization to Market T2Candida and T2Dx for the Detection of Sepsis-Causing Pathogens
T2 Biosystems announced that it has received market authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its first two products, the T2Candida® Panel and the T2Dx® Instrument for the direct detection of Candida species in human whole blood specimens from patients with symptoms of, or medical conditions predisposing the patient to, invasive fungal infections. [T2 Biosystems, Inc.] Press Release

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December 1-4, 2014
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March 2-3, 2015
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NEW PhD Studentship – Infection Biology (Karolinska Institute)

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Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogens and the Immune System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (University of Missouri)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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