Volume 2.36 | Sep 17

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.36 September 17, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Neutrophils Sense Microbe Size and Selectively Release Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Response to Large Pathogens
Investigators found that neutrophils sensed microbe size and selectively released neutrophil extracellular traps in response to large pathogens, such as Candida albicans hyphae and extracellular aggregates of Mycobacterium bovis, but not in response to small yeast or single bacteria. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release | Video
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TLR5-Mediated Sensing of Gut Microbiota Is Necessary for Antibody Responses to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination
Vaccination of Trl5−/− mice resulted in reduced antibody titers and lower frequencies of plasma cells, demonstrating a role for TLR5 in immunity to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. TLR5-mediated sensing of flagellin promoted plasma cell differentiation directly and by stimulating lymph node macrophages to produce plasma cell growth factors. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Dysfunctional CD8+ T Cells in Hepatitis B and C Are Characterized by a Lack of Antigen-Specific T-Bet Induction
Investigators report that high expression of T-bet in virus-specific CD8 T cells during acute hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was associated with spontaneous resolution, whereas T-bet deficiency was more characteristic of chronic evolving infection. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Eosinophil-Derived IL-10 Supports Chronic Nematode Infection
Findings indicate that eosinophils are specifically recruited to sites of infection at the earliest stage of muscle infection, consistent with a local response to injury. By producing IL-10 at the initiation of infection, eosinophils expand IL-10+ myeloid dendritic cells and CD4+IL-10+ T lymphocytes that inhibit inducible NO synthase expression and protect intracellular larvae. [J Immunol] Abstract

Infection with Host-Range Mutant Adenovirus 5 Suppresses Innate Immunity and Induces Systemic CD4+ T Cell Activation in Rhesus Macaques
To gain some insight into how adenovirus 5 (Ad5) infection affects the immune system of rhesus macaques (RM), 18 RM were infected with a host-range mutant Ad5 by three mucosal inoculations. There was a delay of two to six weeks after the first inoculation before plasmacytoid dendritic cell frequency and function increased in peripheral blood. [PLoS One] Full Article

B Cell Subsets Are Activated and Produce Cytokines during Early Phases of Francisella tularensis LVS Infection
Based on work with the murine tularemia model, researchers report that F. tularensis LVS infects peritoneal CD19+ cells – exclusively B-1a cells – early after intraperitoneal infection in vivo. [Microb Pathog] Abstract


IFN-Stimulated Gene LY6E in Monocytes Regulates the CD14/TLR4 Pathway but Inadequately Restrains the Hyperactivation of Monocytes during Chronic HIV-1 Infection
Scientists report that the IFN-stimulated gene lymphocyte Ag 6 complex, locus E (LY6E) is a negative immune regulator of monocytes. In the setting of chronic HIV infection, the upregulation of LY6E was correlated with reduced CD14 level on monocytes; however, the immunosuppressive effect of LY6E was not adequate to remedy the hyperresponsiveness of activated monocytes. [J Immunol] Abstract

Frequency and Phenotype of B Cell Subpopulations in Young and Aged HIV-1 Infected Patients Receiving ART
Investigators evaluated the distribution of B cell subpopulations in young and aged healthy individuals and HIV-1 infected patients, treated and naïve to treatment. B cell populations were characterized for the expression of inhibitory molecules and activation markers; the capacity of B cells to respond to activation signals through up-regulation of IL-6 expression was also evaluated. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Early Preservation of CXCR5+ PD-1+ Helper T Cells and B Cell Activation Predict the Breadth of Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Chronic HIV-1 Infection
By monitoring longitudinally a cohort of HIV-1 infected subjects, the authors observed that the preservation of CXCR5+ CD4+ T helper cell frequencies and activation status of B cells during the first year of infection correlates with the maximum breadth of plasma neutralizing antibody responses during chronic infection, independently of viral load. [J Virol] Abstract

Distortion of Memory Vδ2 γδ T Cells Contributes to Immune Dysfunction in Chronic HIV Infection
Scientists found a dynamic change in memory Vδ2 γδ T cells, skewed toward an activated and terminally differentiated effector memory phenotype TEMRA2 γδ T cell, which may account for the dysfunction of Vδ2 γδ T cells in HIV disease. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

PBMC of HIV-Infected Patients Contain CD8 T Cells that Form Conjugates with and Kill HIV-Infected Autologous CD4 T Cells
Researchers propose that CD4 T cell annihilation in HIV-infected patients results, at least in part, from the interactions of perforin-rich CD8 T cells with autologous, HIV-infected CD4 T cells. [Immunology] Abstract

Immunomodulation of Antiretroviral Drug-Suppressed Chronic HIV-1 Infection in an Oral Probiotic Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
Scientists hypothesized that an oral probiotic could improve the residual immune activation in chronic treated HIV-1 infection, and tested a Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 capsule probiotic in HIV-1-infected persons with suppressed viremia on stable antiretroviral therapy in a three-month double-blind placebo-controlled trial. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract | Press Release

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Scaling of Immune Responses against Intracellular Bacterial Infection
Macrophages detect bacterial infection through pattern recognition receptors localized at the cell surface, in intracellular vesicles or in the cytosol. Discrimination of viable and virulent bacteria from non-virulent bacteria (dead or viable) is necessary to appropriately scale the anti-bacterial immune response. Such scaling of anti-bacterial immunity is necessary to control the infection, but also to avoid immunopathology or bacterial persistence. [EMBO J] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Sangamo BioSciences Announces Presentation at ICAAC of New Clinical Data Demonstrating Sustained Functional Control of Viremia in Multiple HIV-Infected Subjects Treated with SB-728-T
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. announced the presentation of new data demonstrating that a single infusion of Sangamo’s novel ZFP Therapeutic®, SB-728-T, resulted in sustained reduction and control of viral load in the absence of antiretroviral drugs in several subjects. [Press release from Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Seattle BioMed Team Up on Malaria Clinical Trials
Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the Seattle Vaccine Trials Unit have begun a collaboration with Seattle BioMed and its Malaria Clinical Trials Center for upcoming malaria clinical research studies of experimental drugs that may prevent and/or treat malaria, which include a malaria challenge. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center] Press Release

InDevR Wins BARDA Contract for Cutting-Edge Influenza Diagnostic
InDevR announced that it has signed a contract with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to complete product development of their unique influenza diagnostic, FluChip-8G, which is capable of rapidly genotyping influenza viruses directly from clinical samples. [InDevR, Inc.] Press Release
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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Immunogenicity and Bioassay Summit 2014
November 17-19, 2014
Bethesda, United States

NEW 43rd Autumn Immunology Conference (AIC) 2014
November 21-24, 2014
Chicago, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW PhD Studentship – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Pathogenic Mechanisms during Alphavirus Infections (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity and Pathogenesis (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogens and the Immune System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (University of Missouri)

Research Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis (Imperial College London)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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