Volume 2.35 | Sep 10

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.35 September 10, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Scientists Discover HIV Antibody that Binds to Novel Target on Virus
Scientists have discovered a new vulnerability in the armor of HIV that a vaccine, other preventive regimen or treatment could exploit. At a newly identified site on the viral spike is where a new antibody found by the scientists in an HIV-infected person binds to the virus. The antibody prevents 62% of known HIV strains from infecting cells in the laboratory and is extremely potent. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Local Macrophage Chemokine Network Sustains Protective Tissue-Resident Memory CD4 T Cells
Researchers show that a preexisting pool of CD4 resident T cells (TRM) cells in the genital mucosa was required for full protection from a lethal herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Chemokines secreted by a local network of macrophages maintained vaginal CD4 TRM in memory lymphocyte clusters, independently of circulating memory T cells. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Skin-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Trigger a State of Tissue-Wide Pathogen Alert
Researchers demonstrate that activated tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) in mouse skin profoundly alter the local tissue environment by inducing a number of broadly active antiviral and antibacterial genes. This “pathogen alert” allows skin Trm to protect against an antigenically unrelated virus. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vaccine Generates Acute and Durable Protective Immunity against Ebolavirus Challenge
Researchers show that a chimpanzee-derived replication-defective adenovirus vaccine rapidly induced uniform protection against acute lethal Zaire ebolavirus challenge in macaques. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Oral-Resident Natural Th17 Cells and γδ T Cells Control Opportunistic Candida albicans Infections
Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, investigators found that IL-17 is produced within one to two days by tongue-resident populations of γδ T cells and CD3+CD4+CD44hiTCRβ+CCR6+ natural Th17 cells, but not by TCR-deficient innate lymphoid cells or NK cells. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Act as an Extravascular Cytotoxic Barrier for Joint-Invading Lyme Borrelia
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells interacted with Borrelia burgdorferi at blood vessel walls and disrupted dissemination attempts by these microbes into joints. Successful penetrance of B. burgdorferi out of the vasculature and into the joint tissue was met by a lethal attack by extravascular iNKT cells through a granzyme-dependent pathway, an observation also made in vitro for iNKT cells from joint but not liver or spleen. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

TLR9 Transcriptional Regulation in Response to Double-Stranded DNA Viruses
Researchers examined the relationship between activation and the transcriptional regulation of TLR9. They demonstrate that infection of primary human epithelial cells, B cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells with double-stranded DNA viruses induces a regulatory temporary negative-feedback loop that blocks TLR9 transcription and function. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Preferential Infection of Human Ad5-Specific CD4 T Cells by HIV in Ad5 Naturally Exposed and Recombinant Ad5-HIV Vaccinated Individuals
Scientists comparatively evaluated the HIV susceptibility and phenotypes of human CD4 T cells specific to Ad5 and CMV, two viruses that have been used as HIV vaccine vectors. They show that Ad5-specific CD4 T cells, either induced by natural Ad5 exposure or expanded by recombinant Ad5 vaccination, are highly susceptible to HIV in vitro and are preferentially lost in HIV-infected individuals compared with CMV-specific CD4 T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Differential Characteristics of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes Restricted by the Protective HLA Alleles B*27 and B*57 in HIV-1 Infection
Scientists examined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses from HIV-1 infected individuals restricted through protective and non-protective HLA-alleles within the same host. Their data show that many of the mechanisms of CTL that are generally held responsible for slowing down HIV-1 disease progression hold for HLA-B*57, but do not hold for HLA-B*27. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Novel HIV-1 miRNAs Stimulate TNFα Release in Human Macrophages via TLR8 Signaling Pathway
Using sensitive quantitative Real Time PCR and sequencing, investigators detected novel HIV-derived miRNAs in the sera of HIV+ persons and associated with exosomes. Release of TNFα by macrophages challenged with HIV miRNAs was measured by ELISA. [PLoS One] Full Article

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates the Gene Interactions to Activate the HIV Replication and Faster Disease Progression in a Co-Infected Host
Investigators aimed to highlight a few of the immunological events that may influence and accelerate the progression of HIV disease in the presence of co-infecting M. tuberculosis. A significantly higher T-regulatory cell frequency coupled with the high FoxP3 expression in CD4 T-cells indicated an immunosuppressive environment in the advance stage of HIV-1 infection. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models
 
REVIEWS
Hydrogels and Scaffolds for Immunomodulation
The authors provide an insight into emerging hydrogel and scaffold based immunomodulatory approaches that continue to demonstrate efficacy against immune associated diseases. [Adv Mater] Abstract

Targeting HIV Latency: Resting Memory T Cells, Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and Future Directions
This review describes approaches investigators have used to reactivate latent proviral genomes in resting CD4+ T cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the authors review approaches for clearance of these reservoirs along with other important topics related to HIV eradication. [Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.

Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics - December 7-11, 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
New Single-Dose Influenza Drug Appears Safe and Effective
An analysis of Phase II and Phase III clinical trials shows that a single injected dose of the neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir is safe and effective at alleviating influenza symptoms, including fever and viral shedding, when administered within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. [Press release from the American Society for Microbiology discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

Genocea Presents Phase I Immunology Data for Novel Pneumococcus Vaccine
Genocea Biosciences, Inc. presented data from a Phase I study of GEN-004, an investigational vaccine designed to prevent disease caused by all serotypes of pneumococcus. [Press release from Genocea Biosciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

Shionogi Presents Pre-Clinical and Phase I Results for S-649266, a Novel Siderophore Cephalosporine Antibiotic with Potential to Treat Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Pathogens
Findings showed Shionogi’s novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, S-694266, exhibited marked potency against Gram-negative bacteria. [Press release from Shionogi & Co., Ltd. discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

Novan’s Nitric Oxide Drug Candidate Inhibits Growth of Papillomavirus in Translational Animal Model
Novan Therapeutics announced that Novan’s nitric oxide drug candidate SB206 was shown to inhibit papilloma growth in a preclinical animal study. [Press release from Novan Therapeutics discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

Melinta Therapeutics Demonstrate Delafloxacin`s Potent and Rapid Antimicrobial Activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Melinta Therapeutics announced results from in vitro studies that highlight the potential of delafloxacin, an investigational fluoroquinolone, to target N. gonorrhoeae, the causative organism of gonorrhea. [Press release from Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
OHSU Scientist Awarded $25 Million Grant to Further HIV Vaccine Research
Oregon Health & Science University researchers have received a $25 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to advance work on a promising vaccine candidate that may someday prevent or cure infection with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. [Oregon Health & Science University] Press Release

Johnson & Johnson Responds to Ebola Crisis with Commitment to Accelerate Vaccine Program in Collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Provide Humanitarian Relief Aid
Johnson & Johnson announced it will fast-track the development of a promising new combination vaccine regimen against Ebola and broadly collaborate with its partners in global health to deliver immediate relief aid to address the current Ebola outbreak. [Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc.] Press Release

The Search for Ebola Immune Response Targets
Researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology and the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California, San Diego are assisting the scientific community by running high-speed online publications of analysis of ebolavirus-related epitope data being curated in the Immune Epitope Data Base (IEDB), and predicting epitopes using the IEDB Analysis Resource. [UC San Diego ] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 8th Vaccine & ISV Congress
October 26-28, 2014
Philadelphia, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune and Pathogenic Mechanisms during Alphavirus Infections (Singapore Immunology Network A*STAR)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity and Pathogenesis (Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogens and the Immune System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (University of Missouri)

Research Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis (Imperial College London)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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