Volume 2.34 | Sep 3

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.34 September 3, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Antibody “Cocktail” Defeats Ebola Up to Five Days Post-Infection
Researchers report that ZMapp™, an antibody “cocktail” made from two previously-designed combinations of antibodies, was 100 per cent effective in reversing the course of the disease, even up to as much as five days after infection. [Press release from University of Manitoba discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Neutrophils Prime a Long-Lived Effector Macrophage Phenotype that Mediates Accelerated Helminth Expulsion
Investigators examined the role of innate cells in acquired resistance to the natural murine parasitic nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Macrophages obtained from lungs as late as 45 days after N. brasiliensis inoculation were able to transfer accelerated parasite clearance to naive recipients. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Translocalized IgA Mediates Neutralization and Stimulates Innate Immunity Inside Infected Cells
Scientists show that IgA is carried inside cells during virus infection, where it activates intracellular virus neutralization and innate immune signaling. IgA neutralizes adenovirus infection in a tripartite motif-containing protein 21- and proteasome-dependent manner in both human and mouse cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Late Engagement of CD86 after Influenza Virus Clearance Promotes Recovery in a FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cell Dependent Manner
Investigators found that antibody-mediated CD86 blockade in vivo after virus clearance led to a delay in recovery, characterized by increased numbers of lung neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in airways and lung interstitium, but no change in conventional Influenza A virus-specific T cell responses. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

T Cell-Derived IL-4/IL-13 Protects Mice against Fatal Schistosoma mansoni Infection Independently of Basophils
Using T cell-specific IL-4/IL-13-deficient mice and basophil-deficient Mcpt8Cre mice, scientists determined the contribution of Th2 cells and basophils for protective immunity against S. mansoni egg-induced pathology during the patent stage of infection. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Early Mucosal Sensing of SIV Infection by Paneth Cells Induces IL-1β Production and Initiates Gut Epithelial Disruption
Researchers utilized the SIV model of AIDS to assess the earliest host-virus interactions and mechanisms of inflammation and dysfunction in the gut, prior to CD4+ T cell depletion. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release

HIV-1 Induces B-Cell Activation and Class Switch Recombination via Spleen Tyrosine Kinase and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Pathways
Investigators evaluated which signaling pathways are activated in primary B cells after a direct contact with HIV-1 particles in vitro using different kinase inhibitors. [AIDS] Abstract

Infant HIV-1 gp120 Vaccination Elicits Robust and Durable Anti-V1V2 IgG Responses and Only Rare Envelope-Specific IgA Responses
Infant responses to vaccines can be impeded by maternal antibodies and immune system immaturity. HIV envelope-specific antibody responses were evaluated in two completed pediatric vaccine trials. [J Infect Dis] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Emergence of Individual HIV-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses during Primary HIV-1 Infection Can Determine Long-Term Disease Outcome
Investigators assessed which particular HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses contribute to long-term control of
HIV-1. [J Virol]
Abstract

Direct Interrogation of Viral Peptides Presented by the Class I HLA of HIV Infected T Cells
Scientists pursued deep ligand sequencing as an alternative method of directly identifying those ligands that are epitopes presented to cytotoxic T lymphocytes by the class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) of infected cells. [J Virol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Hepatitis B Flares in Chronic Hepatitis B: Pathogenesis, Natural Course and Management
The authors discuss hepatitis B flare, defined as an event with abrupt rise of alanine aminotransferase to greater than five times upper limit of normal during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which is considered to be the results of human leukocyte antigen-I restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated immune response against HBV and its downstream mechanisms. [J Hepatol] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Sanofi Pasteur’s Dengue Vaccine Candidate Successfully Completes Final Landmark Phase III Clinical Efficacy Study in Latin America
Sanofi Pasteur announced that the final landmark Phase III efficacy study of its dengue vaccine candidate in Latin America successfully achieved its primary clinical endpoint. Results showed an overall significant reduction of 60.8 percent of dengue disease cases in children and adolescents 9-16 years old after a three-dose vaccination schedule. [Sanofi Pasteur SA] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Researchers Receive $3.4 Million to Study Experimental Drug Combination in HIV
Researchers have received a $3.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to study an experimental drug combination that appears to rid white blood cells of HIV and keep the infection in check for long periods. [University of Rochester Medical Center] Press Release

Alabama State University Gets $344K Grant to Develop STD Vaccine
The National Institute of Health has awarded the Alabama State University’s Center for NanoBiotechnology Research a three-year, $344,000 grant to develop a vaccine that would prevent chlamydia transmission. [Alabama State University] Press Release

NIH to Launch Human Safety Study of Ebola Vaccine Candidate
​Initial human testing of an investigational vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease will begin by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The early-stage trial will begin initial human testing of a vaccine co-developed by NIAID and GlaxoSmithKline and will evaluate the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune system response in healthy adults. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

Pfizer’s Investigational Vaccine Candidate for Clostridium difficile Receives U.S. Food and Drug Administration Fast Track Designation
Pfizer Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted Fast Track designation to the company’s investigational C. difficile vaccine candidate. Currently in Phase II clinical development, the vaccine candidate is designed to prevent C. difficile-associated disease, which can include life-threatening diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – The Modes of Action of Vaccine Adjuvants (S1)
October 8-13, 2014
Seattle, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogens and the Immune System (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Human Enteric Infections (University of Utah)

NEW PhD Studentship – Immune Activation in Human Retroviral Pathologies (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (University of Missouri)

Research Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis (Imperial College London)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

PhD Candidate – Viral Immunology (Pompeu Fabra University)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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