Volume 2.33 | Aug 27

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.33 August 27, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
Cell Therapy News on Facebook  IIDN on Twitter
 
TOP STORY
Innate Lymphoid Cells Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Glycosylation
The authors show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells induced intestinal epithelial fucosyltransferase 2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin 22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. [Science] Abstract
Learn more about the new smartphone app for human blood cell frequencies
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Intrabronchial Infection of Rhesus Macaques with Simian Varicella Virus Results in a Robust Immune Response in the Lungs
The authors report that acute simian varicella virus infection results in a robust innate immune response in the lungs, characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors as well as an increased frequency of plasmacytoid dendritic cells that corresponded with IFNα production and a rapid decrease in viral loads in the lungs. [J Virol] Abstract

Circulating Mucosal Associated Invariant T Cells Are Activated in Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection and Associated with Lipopolysaccharide Antibody Responses
Researchers found that blood MAIT cells are activated during cholera, and that in children, blood MAIT cells are decreased in number during the course of disease. They also found that the mucosal associated invariant T cell response correlates with the antibody response to V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide, which in the past has been shown to be an important determinant of protection. [PLoS Negl Trop Dis] Full Article

Internalization and TLR-Dependent Type I Interferon Production by Monocytes in Response to Toxoplasma gondii
Investigators show that inflammatory monocytes (IMs), but not neutrophils, produce interferon (IFN)-β in response to T. gondii infection. They also show that expression of IFN-β requires phagocytic uptake of the parasite by IMs, and signaling through toll-like receptors and MyD88. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Mast Cells as Rapid Innate Sensors of Cytomegalovirus by TLR3/TRIF Signaling-Dependent and
-Independent Mechanisms

Researchers investigated the conditions for mast cell (MC) activation and the consequent degranulation in response to host infection. The data revealed two temporally and mechanistically distinct waves of MC activation: an almost instant indirect activation that depended on TLR3/TRIF signaling, and delayed activation by direct infection of MCs that did not involve TLR3/TRIF signaling. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Suppress HIV in the Persistent Viral Reservoir
Investigators show that several HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies (in particular, PGT121, VRC01, and VRC03) potently inhibited entry into CD4+ T cells of HIV isolated from the latent viral reservoir of infected individuals whose plasma viremia was well controlled by antiretroviral therapy. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Provirus Activation Plus CD59 Blockage Triggers Antibody-Dependent Complement-Mediated Lysis of Latently HIV-1-Infected Cells
To purge latently HIV-1-infected cells, the authors combined a provirus stimulant with a blocker of human CD59, a key member of the regulators of complement activation, to trigger Ab-dependent complement-mediated lysis. [J Immunol] Abstract

Neutralizing Antibodies Inhibit HIV-1 Infection of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by an FcγRIIa Independent Mechanism and Do Not Diminish Cytokines Production
Investigators determined the activity of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing inhibitory antibodies on the infection of primary plasmacytoid dendritic cells by HIV-1 primary isolates and analyzed cytokines and chemokines production. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Novel HIV IL-4R Antagonist Vaccine Strategy Can Induce Both High Avidity CD8 T and B Cell Immunity with Greater Protective Efficacy
Researchers developed a novel HIV vaccine that co-expresses a C-terminal deletion mutant of the mouse IL-4, deleted for the essential tyrosine required for signaling. When the IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccine was used in an intranasal prime-boost immunization strategy, greatly enhanced mucosal/systemic HIV specific CD8+ T cells with higher functional avidity, expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and greater protective efficacy were detected. [Vaccine] Full Article

Don’t forget to subscribe to our sister publications: Human Immunology News and Immune Regulation News!

Free Poster: Quick Reference for Mouse Immune Cell Frequencies and Percentages
 
REVIEWS
A Long-Awaited Merger of the Pathways Mediating Host Defense and Programmed Cell Death
Intimate interconnections at multiple levels are revealed between the cell death and inflammatory signal transduction pathways that are mobilized in response to the engagement of pattern recognition receptors during microbial infection. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Ebola Vaccine Using Immunovaccine’s DepoVax Proves Highly Efficacious in Non-Human Primate Study
Immunovaccine Inc. announced positive results for a vaccine formulated in its DepoVax™ technology in an Ebola virus challenge study performed by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health. In a preliminary study using cynomolgus monkeys, all vaccinated subjects survived exposure to a lethal dose of the wild type Zaire strain of the virus. All unvaccinated control animals succumbed to the disease. [Immunovaccine Inc.] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
OMRF Receives $14.5 Million Grant to Continue Anthrax Studies
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF) a five-year, $14.5 million grant to continue its research on anthrax and the bacteria’s effects on humans. [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation] Press Release

UAB Researcher Granted $1 Million to Study Deadly Bacteria Passed to Babies from 25 Percent of Mothers
Narayana Sthanam, Ph.D., has been awarded a four-year, $1 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to further Group B Streptococcus research. [University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB)] Press Release

Phase I Grant to Develop a Rapid Assay Version of Sedia’s HIV-1 LAg-Avidity EIA Could Expand HIV Incidence Testing in Resource Constrained Settings and Provide Additional Patient Information for Improved Case Management.
Sedia Biosciences Corporation announced that it has received a Notice of Award from the National Institutes of Health for a Small Business Innovation Research Grant to develop a Rapid HIV-1 Incidence (or Recency) Assay that will determine recency of HIV-1 infection in as little as 20 minutes from less than a single drop of blood. [Sedia Biosciences Corporation] Press Release

Novartis Provides Drug Candidate Compounds to TB Alliance
Novartis has signed an exclusive worldwide licensing agreement with the Global Alliance for Tuberculosis Drug Development (TB Alliance) for compounds to fight TB that have been discovered at the Novartis Institutes for Tropical Diseases. [Novartis AG] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Inflammatory Skin Disease Summit: The Translational Revolution
November 19-21, 2014
Vienna, Austria

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Microbiology and Immunology (University of Missouri)

Research Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis (Imperial College London)

PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

PhD Candidate – Viral Immunology (Pompeu Fabra University)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Host Pathogen Interactions (Inserm)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


Recruit Top Talent: Reach more than 50,000 potential candidates by posting your organization’s career opportunities on the Connexon Creative Job Board at no cost.
 

Have we missed an important article or publication in Immunology of Infectious Disease News? Click here to submit!

Comments or suggestions? Submit your feedback here
Learn more about Immunology of Infectious Disease News: Archives | Events | Contact Us