Volume 2.32 | Aug 20

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.32 August 20, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Scientists Boost Potential of Passive Immunization against HIV
Scientists have mutated the powerful anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibody called VRC01 so that, once infused into monkeys, it lasts three times longer in blood than unmutated VRC01, collects in rectal mucosal tissue, and persists there more than twice as long as unmutated VRC01. [Press release from the National Institutes of Health discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Interplay between Regulatory T Cells and PD-1 in Modulating T Cell Exhaustion and Viral Control during Chronic LCMV Infection
Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, researchers depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). [J Exp Med] Abstract

Strain-Specific Properties and T Cells Regulate the Susceptibility to Papilloma Induction by Mus musculus Papillomavirus 1
Challenge with 1×1012 virions in the absence of immunosuppression induced small transient papillomas in Cr:ORL SENCAR but not in C57BL/6 mice. Antibody-induced depletion of CD3+ T cells permitted efficient virus replication and papilloma formation in both strains, providing experimental proof for the crucial role of T cells in controlling papillomavirus infection and associated disease. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Cellular Visualization of Macrophage Pyroptosis and IL1β Release in a Viral Hemorrhagic Infection in Zebrafish Larvae
Scientists used zebrafish larvae to study viral hemorrhagic diseases, focusing on the interaction between viruses and host cells. Cellular processes, such as transendothelial migration of leukocytes, viral-induced pyroptosis of macrophages and Il1β release, could be observed in individual cells, providing a deeper knowledge of the immune mechanisms implicated in the disease. [J Virol] Abstract

Depletion of Regulatory T Cells Augments a Vaccine-Induced T Effector Cell Response against the Liver-Stage of Malaria but Fails to Increase Memory
Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses in different experimental models. To obtain more insights in the specific function of Treg during vaccination, investigators used mice transgenic for a bacterial artificial chromosome expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor-eGFP fusion protein under the control of the foxp3 gene locus. [PLoS One] Full Article

Identification of Novel Virus-Specific Antigens by CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells from Asymptomatic HSV-2 Seropositive and Seronegative Donors
Investigators hypothesized that herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infected asymptomatic individuals have acquired T cell responses to specific HSV-2 antigen(s) that may be an important factor in controlling their recurrent disease symptoms. Their proteomic screening technology, ATLAS™, was used to characterize the antigenic repertoire of T cell responses in infected and virus-exposed seronegative subjects. [Virology] Abstract


Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Inducers Decrease Rebound from HIV-1 Latent Reservoirs in Humanized Mice
Using humanized mice, scientists show that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can interfere with establishment of a silent reservoir by Fc-FcR-mediated mechanisms. In established infection, bNAbs or bNAbs plus single inducers are ineffective in preventing viral rebound. However, bNAbs plus a combination of inducers that act by independent mechanisms synergize to decrease the reservoir as measured by viral rebound. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

HIV-1 Envelope gp41 Antibodies Can Originate from Terminal Ileum B Cells that Share Cross-Reactivity with Commensal Bacteria
Monoclonal antibodies derived from blood plasma cells of acute HIV-1-infected individuals are predominantly targeted to the HIV Env gp41 and cross-reactive with commensal bacteria. To understand this phenomenon, researchers examined anti-HIV responses in ileum B cells using recombinant antibody technology and probed their relationship to commensal bacteria. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

TIM-Family Proteins Inhibit HIV-1 Release
Investigators report that the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM)-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Impair the Elimination of HIV-Infected Cells by Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes
Recently, it has been demonstrated that the low levels of viral gene expression induced by a candidate histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) may be insufficient to cause the death of infected cells by viral cytopathic effects, necessitating their elimination by immune effectors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Investigators studied the impact of three HDACis in clinical development on T-cell effector functions. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article | Press Release

High Frequencies of Polyfunctional CD8+ NK Cells in Chronic HIV-1 Infection Are Associated with Slower Disease Progression
In a longitudinal, retrospective study of 117 untreated HIV-infected subjects investigators show that higher frequencies of natural killer (NK) cells as well as absolute numbers of CD8+CD3 lymphocytes are linked to delayed HIV-1 disease progression. [J Virol] Abstract

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Cellular Immune Response in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Multiple immune cells are important in the immune regulation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Focusing on the activation states of immune cells may provide new evidences and strategies for determining immune status of HBV infectors, monitoring progression of diseases and predicting efficacy of antiviral treatment. [Microb Pathog] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
Spero Therapeutics to Present Data on the Impact of Targeted MvfR-Regulon Inhibitors on Gram Negative Bacteria
Spero will present data in symposium and poster sessions showing activity of MvfR inhibitors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. [Press release from Spero Therapeutics, LLC (Business Wire) discussing research to be presented at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Washington, DC] Press Release

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Immune Targeting Systems and WCCT Global Announce a New Influenza A H1N1 Virus to Support the Experimental Human Viral Challenge Model
To determine the effectiveness of their new T cell vaccine Flunisyn™, Immune Targeting Systems (ITS) produced its own live influenza challenge agent derived from the recently circulating Influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus. ITS announced an asset purchase agreement with WCCT Global for ITS’ proprietary developed challenge strain. [Immune Targeting Systems (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

Pfizer Announces FDA Acceptance of and Priority Review Designation for Biologics License Application for Investigational Meningococcal B Vaccine
Pfizer Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the Biologics License Application for bivalent recombinant LP2086, the company’s vaccine candidate for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B in 10 through 25 year olds. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 40th American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI) Annual Meeting
October 20-24, 2014
Denver, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis (Imperial College London)

NEW PhD Candidate – Infection Biology and Immunology (ZIBI Graduate School Berlin)

PhD Candidate – Viral Immunology (Pompeu Fabra University)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Host Pathogen Interactions (Inserm)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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