Volume 2.31 | Aug 13

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.31 August 13, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Virus-Specific Regulatory T Cells Ameliorate Encephalitis by Repressing Effector T Cell Functions from Priming to Effector Stages
Researchers recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) and conventional CD4 T cells (Tconv) in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Now they provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article
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Type II Cytokines Impair Host Defense against an Intracellular Fungal Pathogen by Amplifying Macrophage Generation of IL-33
Dissection of mechanisms that promulgated interleukin (IL)-33 revealed type-II cytokines and Histoplasma capsulatum synergistically elicited an IL-33 response in macrophages via signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6/interferon-regulatory factor-4 and Dectin-1 pathways, respectively. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

The Immunotherapeutic Role of Regulatory T Cells in Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis Infection
Using a mouse model of chronic L. (V.) panamensis infection, investigators examined the hypothesis that regulatory T cell (Treg) functionality contributes to control of pathogenesis. Upon infection, Tregs (CD4+Foxp3+) presented with a dysregulated phenotype produced IFN-γ, expressed Tbet, and had a reduced ability to suppress T cell proliferation in vitro. [J Immunol] Abstract

Co-Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates the B Cell Response to Influenza Virus
Researchers report that the B cell response to influenza A virus (IAV) is altered in IAV-S. pneumoniae co-infected mice and that this response differs depending on the order of pathogen exposure. [J Virol] Abstract

Serum Th1/Th2 and Macrophage Lineage Cytokines in Leprosy; Correlation with Circulating CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T-regs Cells
Investigators evaluated serum interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-12p70, interferon-γ, IL-4, and circulating CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (T-regs), in untreated leprosy patients. [Exp Dermatol] Abstract

Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection Overrules T Regulatory Cell Suppression on Natural Killer Cells
To understand the contribution of T regulatory cells (Tregs) on natural killer (NK) cell function during acute mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, scientists infected Treg depleted and undepleted DEREG mice with WT MCMV and examined Treg and NK cell frequency, number, activation and effector function in vivo. [Virol J] Abstract | Full Article


Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on CD4+ T Cells of HIV-Infected Patients Receiving HAART
Researchers studied 79 HIV-infected patients who had been receiving HAART for more than 2 years and who had HIV viral load below 50 copies/ml. CD4 T-cell counts and the numbers of all circulating CD4 T-cell maturation subsets were diminished in HIV infection; CD4 T-cell activation and apoptosis were increased in HIV infection, but none of these indices was affected by hepatitis C virus coinfection. [AIDS] Abstract

High Eomesodermin Expression among CD57+ CD8+ T Cells Identifies a CD8+ T Cell Subset Associated with Viral Control during Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Researchers investigated the phenotype of CD57 expressing CD8+ T cells in healthy donors and during HIV infection combining CD57 expression to Eomesodermin, a T-box transcription factor which determines, coordinately with T-bet, effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation. [J Virol] Abstract

FcγRIII (CD16)-Mediated ADCC by NK Cells Is Regulated by Monocytes and FcγRII (CD32)
Scientists demonstrate that in humans CD16-dependent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by NK cells is considerably enhanced by monocytes, and that this effect is regulated by CD32 crosslinking in healthy individuals. They show that immune regulation of CD16-mediated NK-cell cytotoxicity by monocytes through CD32 engagement is substantially disturbed in chronic progressive HIV-1 infection.[Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Higher Levels of Circulating Monocyte-Platelet Aggregates Are Correlated with Viremia and Increased sCD163 Levels in HIV-1 Infection
The monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

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The authors focus on recent developments to generate antivirals targeting host cell factors or immune-based therapeutic approaches to fight infections with enveloped viruses. [Trends Pharmacol Sci] Abstract

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Oak Crest Receives $20 Million Grant for HIV Prevention Research
Researchers at the Oak Crest Institute of Science have been awarded a $20 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to systematically develop an intravaginal ring capable of delivering powerful antiretroviral drugs to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted HIV in women. [Oak Crest Institute of Science] Press Release

FDA Modifies Tekmira’s TKM-Ebola Clinical Hold to Partial Hold
Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corporation announced that the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has verbally confirmed they have modified the full clinical hold placed on the TKM-Ebola Investigational New Drug Application to a partial clinical hold. This action enables the potential use of TKM-Ebola in individuals infected with Ebola virus. [Tekmira Pharmaceuticals Corporation] Press Release

FDA Approves The Medicines Company’s ORBACTIV™ (Oritavancin) for Use in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections
The Medicines Company announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ORBACTIV™ for injection for the treatment of adults with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible designated Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. [The Medicines Company] Press Release

Cempra Initiates Phase III Clinical Trial in Patients with Uncomplicated Gonorrhea Infection
Cempra, Inc. announced the initiation of a Phase III clinical trial, called Solitaire-U, of a single 1000 mg dose of oral solithromycin in patients with uncomplicated Neisseria gonorrhea and chlamydia infections. [Cempra, Inc.] Press Release

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November 9-13, 2014
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NEW PhD Candidate – Viral Immunology (Pompeu Fabra University)

Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

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Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

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Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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