Volume 2.30 | Aug 6

Newsletter Issue
Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.30 August 6, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
MHCII-Mediated Dialog between Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells and CD4+ T Cells Potentiates Type 2 Immunity and Promotes Parasitic Helminth Expulsion
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, the authors demonstrate that T helper 2 cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. [Immunity]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
DOCK8 Regulates Protective Immunity by Controlling the Function and Survival of ​RORγt+ ILCs
​Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt-positive (​RORγt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) produce ​interleukin (IL)-22 and ​IL-17, which are critical for protective immunity against enteric pathogens. Investigators show that ​dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (​DOCK8), a scaffolding protein involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration, is essential for the protective immunity against Citrobacter rodentium. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Surface Expression of the hRSV Nucleoprotein Impairs Immunological Synapse Formation with T Cells
Although several mouse- and human cell-based studies have shown that human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection prevents naïve T-cell activation by antigen-presenting cells, the mechanism underlying such inhibition remains unknown. Researchers show that the hRSV nucleoprotein could be at least partially responsible for inhibiting T-cell activation during infection by this virus. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Antigen Export during Liver Infection of the Malaria Parasite Augments Protective Immunity
Scientists systematically characterized the contribution of protein export to the magnitude of antigen-specific T-cell responses against Plasmodium berghei liver-stage parasites in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with live attenuated transgenic sporozoites revealed that antigen export was not critical for CD8+ T-cell priming but enhanced CD8+ T-cell proliferation in the liver. [MBio] Full Article

Mast Cells Are Crucial in the Resistance against Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection
Investigators addressed the role of mast cells (MCs), which are mainly located in mucosa during oral infection with T. gondii, using MC-deficient (W/Wv) mice. They show that in the absence of MCs the resistance of W/Wv mice to oral infection was considerably reduced. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Suppress HIV-1 Replication but Contribute to HIV-1 Induced Immunopathogenesis in Humanized Mice
Researchers developed a monoclonal antibody that specifically depletes human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in all lymphoid organs in humanized mice. Interestingly, the cell death induced by the highly pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate was severely reduced in pDC-depleted mice. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Humanized PA14 (A Monoclonal CCR5 Antibody) for Treatment of People with HIV Infection
PRO 140 (a humanized form of the PA14 antibody) inhibits CCR5-tropic type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Scientists assessed the efficacy, safety, clinical disease progression and immunologic and virologic markers of PRO 140 for HIV-infected patients in randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev] Abstract

Inhibition of Two Temporal Phases of HIV-1 Transfer from Primary Langerhans Cells to T Cells: The Role of Langerin
Scientists examined HIV replication and langerin-mediated viral transfer by authentic immature epidermal Langerhans cells (eLCs) and model Mutz-3 LCs. Two successive phases of HIV viral transfer to T cells via cave/vesicular trafficking and de novo replication were observed with eLCs as previously described in monocyte-derived or blood dendritic cells, but only first phase transfer was observed with Mutz-3 LCs. [J Immunol] Abstract

MicroRNAs Differentially Present in the Plasma of HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Infection In Vitro
As microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression and some of them modulate HIV infection, researchers studied the miRNA profile in plasma from HIV elite controllers and chronically infected individuals and compared against healthy donors. Several miRNAs correlate with CD4+ T cell count or with the known time of infection. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Early Skewed Distribution of Total and HIV-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Memory Phenotypes during Primary HIV Infection Is Related to Reduced Antiviral Activity and Faster Disease Progression
An immunophenotypic analysis (in terms of memory markers and programmed cell death 1 expression) of the CD8+ T-cell subset found in primary HIV infection was performed. Investigators sought for associations with functional properties of the CD8+ T-cell subsets, viral control and subsequent disease progression. [PLoS One] Full Article

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
REVIEWS
Dendritic Cells, Monocytes and Macrophages: A Unified Nomenclature Based on Ontogeny
The mononuclear phagocyte system has historically been categorized into monocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages on the basis of functional and phenotypical characteristics. The authors suggest that these cells can be classified primarily by their ontogeny and secondarily by their location, function and phenotype. [Nat Rev Immunol] Editorial

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Can the Tobacco Plant be the Key to HIV Prevention?
Researchers from the University of Louisville will lead an international effort to utilize tobacco plants to develop a gel containing a specific protein that will prevent the transmission of HIV. The project is being funded by a five-year, $14.7 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. [University of Louisville] Press Release

TSRI Laboratories Perform Crucial Research in Development of Promising Ebola Virus Treatment
Laboratories at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) are investigating antibodies to fight Ebola virus, including the three antibodies recently used to treat two American health care workers infected with the Ebola virus. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Theraclone Announces Exclusive Agreement with Gilead Sciences for Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibodies
Theraclone Sciences, Inc. announced that it has entered into an agreement with Gilead Sciences, Inc., under which Gilead received an exclusive license to develop and commercialize products incorporating Theraclone’s broadly neutralizing HIV-antibodies for therapeutic applications in HIV. [Theraclone Sciences, Inc.] Press Release

Biota Reports Top-Line Data from Its Phase II “IGLOO” Trial of Laninamivir Octanoate
Biota Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced top-line data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm Phase II clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of a 40 mg and 80 mg dose of laninamivir octanoate to placebo (for treatment of influenza A or B virus). [Biota Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Immune Homeostasis and Inflammatory Disease: A Herrenhausen Symposium
November 6-8, 2014
Hanover, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Scholar – Immuno-Virology (University of California)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Macrophage Functions (Cochin Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Host Pathogen Interactions (Inserm)

PhD Position – Infection Immunology (Otto-Von-Guericke University)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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