Volume 2.29 | Jul 30

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.29 July 30, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Mechanism Found for Development of Protective HIV Antibodies
Scientists found that two distinct B-cell lineage antibodies team up to stimulate the highly sought-after broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV. They were surprised to discover that a helper neutralizing set of antibodies cooperated with cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to lead to a potent set of broadly neutralizing antibodies. [Press release from Duke University discussing online prepublication in Cell]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Modulation of HCV Replication after Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HCV/HIV Co-Infected Patients
Investigators enrolled a small cohort of hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infected patients into a combination antiretroviral therapy initiation trial and used dynamic modeling combined with evaluation of immune responses and microarray profiles to determine how effective treatment of HIV affects HCV. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

Interferon-γ-Producing B Cells Induce the Formation of Gastric Lymphoid Follicles after Helicobacter suis Infection
Scientists demonstrate that the interferon-γ produced by B cells plays an important role in the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles after H. suis infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Differential Requirement for the IKKβ/NF-κB Signaling Module in Regulating TLR- versus RIG-1-Like Receptor-Induced Type 1 IFN Expression in Dendritic Cells
Scientists used IκB kinase β (IKKβ)/NF-κB inhibition and mice deficient in IKKβ or canonical NF-κB subunits to demonstrate that the IKKβ/NF-κB axis is critical for virus-induced type 1 IFN expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, but not in conventional dendritic cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Regulatory T Cells and T-Cell-Derived IL-10 Interfere with Effective Anti-Cytomegalovirus Immune Response
Researchers provide evidence that CD4+Foxp3+ naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as CD4+Foxp3IL-10+-induced Tregs interfere with an effective anti-mouse cytomegalovirus immune response. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract


IFN-α Exerts Opposing Effects on Activation-Induced and IL-7-Induced Proliferation of T Cells That May Impair Homeostatic Maintenance of CD4+ T Cell Numbers in Treated HIV Infection
To determine whether IFN-α is a cause of the T cell hyperactivation and IL-7 signaling pathway defects that are observed in some HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, scientists investigated the effect of IFN-α on the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and treated HIV+ donors. [J Immunol] Abstract

Factors Associated with CD8+ T-Cell Activation in HIV-1-Infected Patients on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy
CD8+ T-cell activation was analyzed on blood specimens from 833 HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy for ≥96 weeks with concurrent plasma HIV RNA ≤200 copies/mL. Factors associated with CD8+ T-cell activation were assessed using generalized estimating equations to incorporate longitudinal measurements. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Apoptosis of Antigen-Specific CTLs Contributes to Low Immune Response in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Post Vaccination
Researchers vaccinated mice with an adenovirus vector that expressed the envelope gene from HIV and observed immune responses in the peripheral blood, spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, and Peyer’s patches. [Vaccine] Abstract

Immunological Profile of Periapical Endodontic Infections from HIV and HIV+ Patients
Investigators evaluated CD4+ CD28+ and CD8+ T cell genes and the gene expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1-β, IL-17A, IL-10, CCL-2/MCP-1, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCR4, CCR5, and RANKL from cells in the periapical interstitial fluid from root canal infections in healthy patients and HIV positive individuals. [Int Endod J] Abstract

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Classical versus Alternative Macrophage Activation: The Ying and the Yang in Host Defense against Pulmonary Fungal Infections
Macrophages in the lungs are often the first responders to pulmonary fungal pathogens, and the macrophage polarization state has the potential to be a deciding factor in disease progression or resolution. The authors discuss the distinct macrophage polarization states and their roles during pulmonary fungal infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in HIV Infection: Pathophysiology, Clinical Implications and Potential Therapies
The authors review the role of intestinal barrier dysfunction in HIV infection, with emphasis on the implicated pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications and potentially effective therapeutic interventions. [Infection] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.
ViiV Healthcare Presents Phase III Data Comparing Once-Daily Maraviroc in Combination with Darunavir/Ritonavir with Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Plus Darunavir/Ritonavir in Treatment-Naïve Adults with HIV-1
ViiV Healthcare presented the analysis of the 48-week results from the Phase III MODERN study comparing maraviroc (marketed as Celsentri®/Selzentry®) dosed once daily with darunavir/ritonavir to emtricitabine/tenofovir with DRV/r in antiretroviral-naïve subjects. [Press release from ViiV Healthcare discussing research presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne] Press Release

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First Vaccine Candidate for Malaria Is Accepted for EU Regulatory Review
Agenus Inc. announced that GlaxoSmithKline has submitted a regulatory application for its malaria vaccine candidate, RTS,S, to the European Medicines Agency and it has been accepted for regulatory review. [Agenus Inc.] Press Release

Atox Bio Closes $23 Million Investment
Atox Bio announced that it has raised up to $23 million in a Series E investment led by SR One with participation by Lundbeckfond Ventures and OrbiMed Israel. The funds will enable Atox Bio to initiate a late stage clinical study of AB103, a novel therapy for the treatment of necrotizing soft tissue infections, commonly referred to as the “flesh eating bacteria” and other severe infections. [Atox Bio Ltd.] Press Release

Collaboration Will Advance Malaria Vaccine Development
Burnet Institute and ARTES Biotechnology have joined forces to develop a new type of malaria vaccine in a project funded by the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative. [Burnet Institute] Press Release

Pfizer Enters into Agreement to Acquire Baxter’s Portfolio of Marketed Vaccines
Pfizer Inc. announced that it has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Baxter International Inc.’s portfolio of marketed vaccines for $635 million. As part of the transaction, Pfizer will also acquire a portion of Baxter’s facility in Orth, Austria, where these vaccines are manufactured. [Pfizer Inc.] Press Release

Novartis Vaccine Bexsero® Sees High Uptake in First Large-Scale Public Vaccination Program to Help Protect Against Devastating Meningitis B
Novartis has announced the initial results of a large-scale vaccination campaign with Bexsero® (Meningococcal Group B Vaccine) to help protect against meningitis B within the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region of Québec, Canada. [Novartis AG] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW The Fourth International Conference on Regulatory T Cells and TH Subsets and Clinical Application in Human Diseases
November 1-4, 2014
Shanghai, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Host Pathogen Interactions (Inserm)

NEW PhD Position – Infection Immunology (Otto-Von-Guericke University)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Sequencing Approaches with Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Retroviral Evolution (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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