Volume 2.28 | Jul 23

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.28 July 23, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Findings Show Strikingly Early Seeding of HIV Viral Reservoir
The most critical barrier for curing HIV-1 infection is the presence of the viral reservoir, the cells in which the HIV virus can lie dormant for many years and avoid elimination by antiretroviral drugs. Investigators demonstrated that the viral reservoir is established strikingly early after intrarectal simian immunodeficiency virus infection of rhesus monkeys and before detectable viremia. [Press release from the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Virus-Helminth Coinfection Reveals a Microbiota-Independent Mechanism of Immunomodulation
Helminths induce potent immunomodulatory effects, but whether these effects are mediated by direct regulation of host immunity or indirectly through eliciting changes in the microbiota is unknown. Researchers tested this in the context of virus-helminth coinfection. [Science] Abstract

c-Myc-Induced Transcription Factor AP4 Is Required for Host Protection Mediated by CD8+ T Cells
Scientists identified AP4 as the transcription factor that was induced by c-Myc and sustained activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Mice lacking AP4 specifically in CD8+ T cells showed enhanced susceptibility to infection with West Nile virus. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Effects of Developmental Activation of the AhR on CD4+ T-Cell Responses to Influenza Virus Infection in Adult Mice
Scientists determined whether maternal exposure to an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand directly alters CD4+ T cell differentiation and function later in life. CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation into distinct effector populations was measured in adult offspring that were infected with influenza A virus. [Environ Health Perspect] Abstract | Full Article

T-bet Modulates the Antibody Response and Immune Protection during Murine Malaria
Investigators used Tbx21−/− mice deficient for T-bet a regulator of Th1 CD4+ T-cell differentiation to examine the effect of Th1 CD4+ T cells on the immune protection to nonlethal murine malaria Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract


Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin for Hepatitis C in Patients with HIV Coinfection
Researchers determined the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication and adverse events in patients with HCV-HIV coinfection receiving sofosbuvir and ribavirin treatment. [JAMA] Full Article | Press Release | Video

Antiretroviral-Free HIV-1 Remission and Viral Rebound after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Report of 2 Cases
Investigators characterized HIV-1 reservoirs in blood and tissues and performed analytic antiretroviral treatment interruptions to determine the potential for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to lead to sustained, antiretroviral-free HIV-1 remission. [Ann Intern Med] Abstract

RNA-Directed Gene Editing Specifically Eradicates Latent and Prevents New HIV-1 Infection
Scientists identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/guide RNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial, promonocytic, and T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release | Video

T-bet and Eomes Are Differentially Linked to the Exhausted Phenotype of CD8+ T Cells in HIV Infection
Two key transcription factors governing CD8+ T cell differentiation, T-bet and Eomesodermin, have previously been shown in mice to differentially regulate T cell exhaustion in part through direct modulation of PD-1. Researchers examined the relationship between these transcription factors and the expression of several inhibitory receptors, functional characteristics and memory differentiation of CD8+ T cells in chronic and treated HIV infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Dynamic Regulation of Host Restriction Factor Expression over the Course of HIV-1 Infection In Vivo
Scientists investigated the expression levels of host restriction factors in six untreated HIV-1-positive patients over the course of infection. They found that the host restriction factor gene expression profile consistently increased over time and significantly associated with CD4+ T cell activation and viral load. [J Virol] Abstract

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
Immunologic Strategies for HIV-1 Remission and Eradication
HIV-1 persists indefinitely during ART as quiescent integrated DNA within memory CD4+ T cells and perhaps other long-lived cellular reservoirs. The authors discuss the role of the immune system in the establishment and maintenance of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. [Science] Abstract

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Anti-Cancer Drug Kicks HIV Out of Hiding
A pilot study has shown that an anti-cancer drug can activate hidden HIV. [Press release from Aarhus University discussing research presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne] Press Release

New Research Finds a Way to Predict which HIV Patients Will Respond Better to Future Therapeutic Vaccine
A new study suggests that HIV patients with a higher level of a particular biomarker, or a measurable indicator found in the blood, may respond more favorably to an experimental immune activating vaccine. [Press release from St. George’s, University of London discussing research presented at the 20th International AIDS Conference, Melbourne] Press Release

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NIH Awards Team of U of R Scientists $9 Million to Study Immune System in Action
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a five-year, $9 million Research Program Project Grant to scientists in the School of Medicine and Dentistry to adapt and develop cutting-edge imaging techniques, allowing them to view the immune system while it is fighting infection and disease. [University of Rochester Medical Center] Press Release

£1.3 Million Wellcome Award to Boost Immune System Research
A University of Dundee researcher has been awarded a £1.3 million grant to boost research into the workings of the immune system. [The University of Dundee] Press Release

Genocea Commences Phase II Dose Optimization Trial for GEN-003 HSV-2 Immunotherapy
Genocea Biosciences, Inc. announced the start of a Phase II dose optimization trial for GEN-003, the Company’s immunotherapy candidate against herpes simplex-type 2 (HSV-2). [Genocea Biosciences, Inc.] Press Release
New HIV Prevention Guidelines Combine Biomedical, Behavioral Approaches
The recommendations, developed by an expert volunteer panel assembled by the International Antiviral Society – USA, are intended as guidelines for clinicians to implement a combined biomedical-behavioral approach to HIV care and prevention. [Emory University] Press Release | Report

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Immunogenomics 2014
September 29 – October 1, 2014
Huntsville, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Virology (Cardiff University)

Product Marketing Manager (Cesca Therapeutics)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Sequencing Approaches with Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Retroviral Evolution (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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