Volume 2.27 | Jul 16

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.27 July 16, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Clinical Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Children in Asia: A Phase III, Randomized, Observer-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Researchers aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children. They did an observer-masked, randomized controlled, multicenter, Phase III trial in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. [Lancet] Abstract | Press Release
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Effect of a Single Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Dose on Intestinal Immunity against Poliovirus in Children Previously Given Oral Vaccine: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) does not induce an intestinal mucosal immune response, but could boost protection in children who are mucosally primed through previous exposure to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Investigators aimed to assess the effect of IPV on intestinal immunity in children previously vaccinated with OPV. [Lancet] Abstract | Press Release

Measles Virus Suppresses RIG-I-Like Receptor Activation in Dendritic Cells via DC-SIGN-Mediated Inhibition of PP1 Phosphatases
Researchers demonstrate that measles virus suppresses RIG-I and Mda5 by activating the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and inducing signaling that prevents RIG-I-like receptor dephosphorylation. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

A BTLA-Mediated Bait and Switch Strategy Permits Listeria Expansion in CD8α+ DCs to Promote Long-Term T Cell Responses
Researchers found that activating the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), a coinhibitory receptor for T cells, suppresses, while blocking BTLA enhances, both the primary and memory CD8 T cell responses against Listeria monocytogenes. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Commensal Microbes Drive Intestinal Inflammation by IL-17-Producing CD4+ T Cells through ICOSL and OX40L Costimulation in the Absence of B7-1 and B7-2
Investigators show that B7 deprivation in mice overrides the necessity for regulator T cells (Tregs) in averting systemic autoimmunity and inflammation in extraintestinal tissues, whereas peripherally induced Tregs retained in the absence of B7 selectively mitigate intestinal inflammation caused by Th17 effector CD4+ T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Distinct Lipid A Moieties Contribute to Pathogen-Induced Site-Specific Vascular Inflammation
Scientists utilized a series of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipid A mutants to demonstrate that antagonistic lipid A structures enable the pathogen to evade Toll-like receptor-4-mediated bactericidal activity in macrophages resulting in systemic inflammation. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Pneumolysin Expression by Streptococcus pneumoniae Protects Colonized Mice from Influenza Virus-Induced Disease
Using mutant S. pneumoniae (Sp) strains, researchers identified a critical role for the bacterial virulence factor pneumolysin (PLY) in mediating protection. Colonization with the PLY-sufficient Sp strain induces expression of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase 1 in alveolar macrophages and correlates with attenuated recruitment and function of pulmonary inflammatory cells. [Virology] Full Article | Press Release


Type I Interferon Responses in Rhesus Macaques Prevent SIV Infection and Slow Disease Progression
Scientists manipulated interferon (IFN)-I signaling in rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission and acute infection with two complementary in vivo interventions. They show that blockade of the IFN-I receptor caused reduced antiviral gene expression, increased SIV reservoir size and accelerated CD4 T-cell depletion with progression to AIDS despite decreased T-cell activation. [Nature] Abstract

Proliferation of Cells with HIV Integrated into Cancer Genes Contributes to Persistent Infection
Researchers evaluated the contribution of infected-cell proliferation and sites of proviral integration to HIV persistence. Each participant had identical viral sequences integrated at the same position in multiple cells, demonstrating infected-cell proliferation. [Science] Abstract

Deficient Synthesis of Class-Switched, HIV-Neutralizing Antibodies to the CD4+ Binding Site and Correction by Electrophilic gp120 Immunogen
Serum antibody responses to a linear CD4+ binding site epitope of gp120 peptide and full-length gp120 epitopes induced by HIV infection in humans and immunization of mice with gp120 or E-gp120 were monitored. HIV neutralization by monoclonal and variable domain-swapped antibodies was determined from tissue culture and humanized mouse infection assays. [AIDS] Abstract

Cutting Edge: An Antibody Recognizing Ancestral Endogenous Virus Glycoproteins Mediates Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity on HIV-1-Infected Cells
Scientists demonstrate that a human anti-human endogenous retroviral-K transmembrane protein Ab binds specifically to HIV-1-infected cells and eliminates them through an Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism in vitro. [J Immunol] Abstract | Full Article

IL-10 and Lymphotoxin-α Expression Profiles within Marginal Zone-Like B-Cell Populations Are Associated with Control of HIV-1 Disease Progression
Investigators report that although B-cell dysregulations associated with HIV-1 disease progression are accompanied by an overall decrease in the percentage of total blood B-cells, they observed an increase in relative frequencies of cells presenting characteristics of both transitional immature and first-line marginal zone B-cell populations. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Cell Exhaustion in HIV-1 Infection: Role of Suppressor Cells
Suppressor cells regulate immune responses during chronic viral infection by limiting immunopathology associated with inflammation and immune activation. A current priority is to find the best strategy to target and manipulate key molecules such as CD39 that suppress anti-HIV-1 immune responses. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the immunology of infectious disease research field.

Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics - December 7-11, 2014
HIV/AIDS Vaccine Shows Long-Term Protection against Multiple Exposures in Nonhuman Primates
Scientists at Emory University and GeoVax Labs, Inc. developed a vaccine that has protected nonhuman primates against multiple exposures to simian immunodeficiency virus given in three clusters over more than three years. [Press release from Emory University discussing research presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Seattle] Press Release

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NIH Launches Phase I Clinical Trial of Novel Drug to Treat Clostridium difficile Infection
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, has launched an early-stage clinical trial of CRS3123, an investigational oral antibiotic intended to treat C. difficile infection. [NIAID] Press Release

Hemispherx Biopharma and Bioclones Join Forces in Effort to Eradicate HIV/AIDS Virus Based on Recent Clinical Insights of Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania
Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. announced execution of an agreement to seek South African government approval to initiate a study of Alferon® N, the only FDA approved natural interferon, in the suppression of HIV Type 1 replication and the reduction/elimination of functional cell-associated HIV DNA integration. [Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 4th Mastering Immunogenicity Summit
September 15-16, 2014
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the immunology of infectious disease community.
NEW Product Marketing Manager (Cesca Therapeutics)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – HIV Research (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Sequencing Approaches with Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Retroviral Evolution (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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