Volume 2.26 | Jul 9

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.26 July 9, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Innate Immune Responses and Rapid Control of Inflammation in African Green Monkeys Treated or Not with Interferon-Alpha during Primary SIVagm Infection
Researchers investigated the role of innate immune cells and interferon (IFN)-α in the control of immune activation in African green monkeys (AGMs). AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Defining Immune Engagement Thresholds for In Vivo Control of Virus-Driven Lymphoproliferation
Scientists used Murid Herpesvirus-4 to determine for a latently expressed viral epitope how MHC class-I binding and cytotoxic T cells functional avidity impact host colonization. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Prophylaxis with a Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Anti-G Protein Monoclonal Antibody Shifts the Adaptive Immune Response to RSV rA2-Line19F Infection from Th2 to Th1 in BALB/c Mice
Scientists investigated the effect of prophylactic treatment with the intact and F(ab’)2 forms of an anti-G protein monoclonal antibody, 131-2G, on the humoral and cellular adaptive immune response to RSV rA2-line19F challenge in BALB/c mice. [J Virol] Abstract

Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response
Researchers analyzed miRs in the genital tract following C. muridarum (murine strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) challenge of wild type and CD4+ T-cell deficient C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post-challenge. [Am J Reprod Immunol] Abstract

Increased T-Cell Responses to EBV with High Viral Load in Patients with EBV-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
Immunological status of patients with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+DLBCL) without obvious immunodeficiency has not been elucidated. A multi-center prospective study was conducted to assess pretreatment T-cell responses to EBV, EBV-DNA load, and anti-EBV antibody in these patients. [Leuk Lymphoma] Abstract

A Macrophage-Stimulating Compound from a Screen of Microbial Natural Products
Streptazolin increased bacterial killing and elaboration of immunostimulatory cytokines by macrophages in vitro. Researchers showed that streptazolin stimulates the macrophage nuclear factor κB pathway via phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase signaling, and that the conjugated diene moiety is essential for stimulatory activity. [J Antibiot] Abstract


Early Initiation of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Preserves Immune Function in the Gut of HIV-Infected Patients
To better understand determinants of gut mucosal restoration, scientists performed phenotypic and gene expression analyses of the gut from HIV-infected patients, naive or treated with combined antiretroviral therapy initiated either at the early phase of the primary infection or later during the chronic phase. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

A CD4+ T Cell Antagonist Epitope Down-Regulates Activating Signaling Proteins, Up-Regulates Inhibitory Signaling Proteins and Abrogates HIV-Specific T Cell Function
In HIV infection it has been shown that peptide sequence variation can reduce CD4+ T cell responses to the virus, and small changes to peptide sequences can transform agonist peptides into antagonist peptides. The authors describe, at a molecular level, the consequences of antagonism of HIV p24-specific CD4+ T cells. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Homeostatic Cytokines Induce CD4 Downregulation in African Green Monkeys Independent of Antigen Exposure to Generate SIV-resistant CD8αα T Cells
Scientists showed that juvenile African green monkeys (AGMs) accelerate CD4 to CD8αα conversion upon SIV infection and avoid progression to AIDS. The CD4 downregulation induced by SIV infection is not limited to SIV-specific T cells, and vaccination of an adult AGM who had a negligible number of CD4 T cells demonstrated that CD4 downregulation can occur without antigenic exposure. [J Virol] Abstract

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Outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Toll-Like Receptor Interaction: Immune Response or Immune Evasion?
The authors focus on the role of toll-like receptors in immune response and immune evasion and how M. tuberculosis maintains its dominance over the host during infection. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

T Cells and Intestinal Commensal Bacteria – Ignorance, Rejection, and Acceptance
For T cells, the response to commensal bacteria does not appear uniform, as certain commensal bacterial species appear to trigger effector T cells to reject and control them, whereas other species elicit Foxp3+ regulatory T cells to accept and be tolerant of them. The authors review current knowledge of T cell differentiation in response to commensal bacteria, and how this process leads to immune homeostasis in the intestine. [FEBS Lett] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Extends Contract with Protein Sciences Corporation
Protein Sciences Corporation announced that BARDA, within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, exercised Option Period 2 of its contract with the company to support development, scale-up and expanded licensure of the company’s influenza vaccines, Flublok® (seasonal) and Panblok® (pandemic). [Protein Sciences Corporation] Press Release

CureVac Signs an Exclusive License Agreement with Sanofi Pasteur to Develop and Commercialize an mRNA-based Prophylactic Vaccine
CureVac announced the execution of an exclusive license agreement with Sanofi Pasteur S.A. to develop and commercialize an mRNA-Based vaccine against an undisclosed pathogen. [CureVac GmbH] Press Release

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 13th International Symposium on Dendritic Cells
September 14-18, 2014
Tours, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Allergic Inflammation and Immunity in Bacterial Infection and Cancer (Dalhousie University and IWK Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Human Immunology (University of Pennsylvania)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Sequencing Approaches with Nonhuman Primate Models of AIDS (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Principal Investigator Positions – Systems & Synthetic Biology (Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Retroviral Evolution (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

PhD Studentship – Microbiology & Immunology (INRS – University of Quebec)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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