Volume 2.23 | Jun 18

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.23 June 18, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Viral Infections, Including Flu, Could Be Inhibited by Naturally Occurring Protein
The oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) protein enhances cells’ ability to detect virus RNA, activating the immune system to sense the virus and inhibit replication. In laboratory tests, boosting this protein in human cells effectively inhibits viral replication. Conversely, mice that do not have OASL were found to be much more susceptible to viral infections. [Press release from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Immunity] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Memory-T-Cell-Derived Interferon-γ Instructs Potent Innate Cell Activation for Protective Immunity
Researchers showed that memory T cells instruct innate cells to become potent effector cells in a systemic and a mucosal model of infection. Memory T cells controlled phagocyte, dendritic cell, and NK or NK T cell mobilization and induction of a strong program of differentiation, which included their expression of effector cytokines and microbicidal pathways, all of which were delayed in nonvaccinated hosts. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Characterization of Pandemic Influenza Immune Memory Signature after Vaccination or Infection
Scientists proposed a multiparameter quantitative and qualitative approach to comparing adaptive immune memory to influenza one year after mild or severe infection or vaccination. [J Clin Invest]
Full Article | Press Release

Cell-to-Cell Transfer of M. tuberculosis Antigens Optimizes CD4 T Cell Priming
Investigators found that infected migratory dendritic cells (DCs) release Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens as soluble, unprocessed proteins for uptake and presentation by uninfected resident lymph node DCs. This transfer of bacterial proteins from migratory to local DCs results in optimal priming of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, which are essential in controlling tuberculosis. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

CD43, but Not CD43+, IL-10-Producing CD1dhiCD5+ B Cells Suppress Type 1 Immune Responses during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection
Scientists have shown that Chlamydia induces IL-10-producing splenic B-cell populations consisting of CD43+ and CD43 subsets of IgMhiIgDlo innate-like B cells in vitro. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Role of IL-17A and IL-10 in the Antigen Induced Inflammation Model by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
The host immune response of an antigen induced inflammation model using SPF mice repeatedly sensitized with M. pneumoniae antigens was analyzed. The specificity of M. pneumoniae antigens in the Th17 response of murine lymphocytes in vitro was also examined. [BMC Microbiol] Abstract | Full Article


A Cell-Intrinsic Inhibitor of HIV-1 Reverse Transcription in CD4+ T Cells from Elite Controllers
P21, a cell-intrinsic cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that is upregulated in CD4+ T cells from “elite controllers,” potently inhibited CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and significantly reduced the efficacy of viral reverse transcription. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

CD4-Induced Activation in a Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer
Researchers use hydrogen-deuterium exchange and oxidative labeling to gain a more precise understanding of the unliganded and CD4-bound forms of soluble HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers, including their glycan composition. [Structure] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Cytokine/Chemokine Responses in Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cells Isolated from Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow and Axillary Lymph Node during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Researchers measured early changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in peripheral blood, bone marrow and axillary lymph node of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMAC251. [J Virol] Abstract

CD40L-Adjuvanted DNA/MVA SIV239 Vaccine Enhances SIV-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity, and Improves Protection against a Heterologous SIVE660 Mucosal Challenge
Investigators utilized the benefits of CD40L, a co-stimulatory molecule that can stimulate both dendritic cells and B cells, as an adjuvant for simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. [J Virol] Abstract

CD4+ T Cells Modified by the Endoribonuclease MazF Are Safe and Can Persist in SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques
To investigate the safety, persistence and efficacy of MazF-modified CD4+ T cells in a nonhuman primate model in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with a pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) and transplanted with autologous MazF-modified CD4+ T cells. [Mol Ther Nucleic Acids] Full Article

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Neutrophils at Work
The authors explore in vivo observations of the recruitment of neutrophils from blood to tissues in models of blood-borne infections versus bacterial invasion through epithelial linings. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Advances in Norovirus Biology
Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

SMi present their inaugural conference on Immunogenicity
Hilleman Laboratories Announces Strategic Collaboration with Gotovax AB to Develop Next Generation Oral Cholera Vaccine
Hilleman Laboratories announced its strategic collaboration with Gotovax AB to develop a high impact oral cholera vaccine. With this collaboration, Hilleman Laboratories aims to deliver the vaccine at a significantly more affordable price than the ones currently available in the market. [Hilleman Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceuticals Broadens Its Intellectual Property Portfolio from the University of Pennsylvania
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. has expanded its existing license agreement with the University of Pennsylvania, adding exclusive worldwide rights to technology and intellectual property for novel synthetic therapies against cancer, infectious diseases and new immune activators. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Novartis Holly Springs Facility Becomes First US Pandemic-Ready Site Licensed by the FDA to Produce Cell-Culture Influenza Vaccines
Novartis announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed its manufacturing facility in Holly Springs, N.C. for the production of cell-culture influenza vaccines. [Novartis AG] Press Release

ViiV Healthcare Announces New Collaboration with Janssen to Investigate Single-Tablet Regimen for Maintenance Treatment of HIV-1
ViiV Healthcare announced that they have entered into an agreement with Janssen R&D Ireland Ltd. for the development and commercialization of a single-tablet combining dolutegravir (Tivicay®) and Janssen’s non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine (Edurant®). [GlaxoSmithKline plc.] Press Release

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NEW Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting
October 23-26, 2014
Ottawa, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Immune Focused In Vitro Analytics (Celentyx Ltd.)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Retroviral Evolution (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Recombinant Molecules and Antibodies (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

NEW Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

PhD Studentship – Microbiology & Immunology (INRS – University of Quebec)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology and Virology (National University of Singapore)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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