Volume 2.22 | Jun 11

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.22 June 11, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Type I Interferons Protect T Cells against NK Cell Attack Mediated by the Activating Receptor NCR1
Direct sensing of type I interferons by T cells protects them from natural killer (NK) cell killing by regulating the expression of natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 (NCR1) ligands, thereby revealing a mechanism by which T cells can evade the potent cytotoxic activity of NK cells. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Type I Interferon Protects Antiviral CD8+ T Cells from NK Cell Cytotoxicity
Using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model system, investigators showed that interferon-I signaling on T cells prevented their rapid elimination in vivo. [Immunity] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

The Gammaherpesviruses KSHV and MHV68 Modulate the TLR-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Response
Researchers have shown that the gammaherpesviruses MHV68 and KSHV efficiently downmodulate TLR signaling in macrophages and have identified a novel function of RTA/ORF50 in modulation of the innate immune response. [J Virol] Abstract | Press Release

CD8+ TCR Transgenic Strains Expressing Public versus Private TCR Targeting the Respiratory Syncytial Virus KdM282-90 Epitope Demonstrate Similar Functional Profiles
Researchers evaluated cells from T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice strains for three major functions of CD8+ T cells: proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic activity. In vitro comparisons of the functional characteristics of T cells from the newly-generated mice demonstrated many similarities in their responsiveness to cognate antigen stimulation. [PLoS One] Full Article

IL-12 Is Required for mTOR Regulation of Memory CTLs during Viral Infection
Results revealed that rapamycin increased the generation of memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vaccinia virus infection, and this enhancement was dependent upon the interleukin (IL)-12 signal. [Genes Immun] Abstract

Inflammatory and Myeloid-Associated Gene Expression before and One Day after Infant Vaccination with MVA85A Correlates with Induction of a T Cell Response
Previous work done in UK adults showed early inflammation in this population is not associated with a strong T cell response but that induction of regulatory pathways inversely correlates with the magnitude of the T cell response. This may be indicative of important mechanistic differences in how T cell responses develop in these two populations following vaccination with MVA85A. [BMC Infect Dis] Abstract | Full Article


Seamless Modification of Wild-Type Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to the Natural CCR5Δ32 Mutation Confers Resistance to HIV Infection
Researchers differentiated modified induced pluripotent stem cells into monocytes/macrophages and demonstrated their resistance to HIV-1 challenge. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Programmed Death-1 Expression on HIV-1 Specific CD8+ T Cells Is Shaped by Epitope Specificity, T-Cell Receptor Clonotype Usage and Antigen Load
Scientists used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:03 and HLA-B*42:01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8 T-cell populations (n=128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. [AIDS] Abstract

HLA Class I Restricted CD8+ and Class II Restricted CD4+ T Cells Are Implicated in the Pathogenesis of Nevirapine Hypersensitivity
Investigators sought to examine nevirapine (NVP) hypersensitivity phenotypes and their relationship with differing major histocompatibility complex Class I and Class II alleles and the associated CD4 and CD8 T cell NVP-specific responses and their durability over time. [AIDS] Abstract

Plasma Interleukin-27 (IL-27) Levels Are Not Modulated in Patients with Chronic HIV-1 Infection
Researchers examined the relationship between plasma IL-27 levels in a well-characterized cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. [PLoS One] Full Article

Assessment of Chloroquine as a Modulator of Immune Activation to Improve CD4 Recovery in Immune Nonresponding HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
Chloroquine (CQ), an anti-inflammatory drug, inhibits Toll-like receptor signaling in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and may be beneficial for HIV-infected patients in whom immune activation persists despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The effect of CQ on CD4 T-cell recovery and immune activation in immune nonresponding patients receiving successful ART was studied. [HIV Med] Abstract

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To Sense or Not to Sense Viral RNA – Essentials of Coronavirus Innate Immune Evasion
An essential function of innate immunity is to distinguish self from non-self and receptors have evolved to specifically recognize viral components and initiate the expression of antiviral proteins to restrict viral replication. [Curr Opin Microbiol] Abstract

Costimulatory TNFR Family Members in Control of Viral Infection: Outstanding Questions
Tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) and their ligands are widely and differentially expressed on both adaptive and innate immune cell types. Authors discuss the role of 4-1BB, OX40, CD27 and glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein and their ligands during viral infection and highlight some of the outstanding questions in the field. [Semin Immunol] Abstract

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Microbiology and Infectious Disease Congress 2014
J. Craig Venter Institute Awarded 5 Year, Approximately $25 Million NIH Grant to Establish a Genome Center for Infectious Diseases
Scientists from the J. Craig Venter Institute have been awarded a five year grant from the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to establish and operate a Genome Center for Infectious Diseases. [J Craig Venter Institute] Press Release

PaxVax Signs R&D Collaboration with UC San Diego to Develop a Vaccine to Prevent Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
PaxVax Inc. announced that it has entered into a research and development collaboration with the University of California, San Diego to develop a combination vaccine to prevent genital herpes simplex virus infections. [PaxVax Inc.] Press Release

NovaDigm Therapeutics Strengthens Candida Vaccine Portfolio with Three New Antigens via Series of Rights Acquisitions
NovaDigm Therapeutics announced that it has acquired the rights, in four separate transactions, to three well-studied Candida vaccine antigens, significantly bolstering the company’s Candida vaccine pipeline. [NovaDigm Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Merck to Acquire Idenix: Acquisition Expands Portfolio of Promising Investigational Therapies for Hepatitis C
Merck announced that the companies have entered into a definitive agreement under which Merck will acquire Idenix for $24.50 per share in cash. The transaction, which values the purchase of Idenix at approximately $3.85 billion, has been approved by the boards of directors of both companies. [Merck & Co., Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Associate – Innate Immunology/Pattern Recognition Receptor Responses and Virus-Host Interactions (Sanford Burnham Medical Research Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Molecular Immunologist (International Livestock Research Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Plasmodium/Anopheles Interactions (Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado)

Research Associate – Viruses in Allergy/Asthma (University of Manchester)

Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

PhD Studentship – Microbiology & Immunology (INRS – University of Quebec)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of Host-Derived Antivirals for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats (Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation – CSIRO)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology and Virology (National University of Singapore)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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