Volume 2.21 | Jun 4

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.21 June 4, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Scientists Uncover Features of Antibody-Producing Cells in People Infected with HIV
Researchers found the B cells that make antibodies to HIV in infected, untreated people are abnormal in that they are more activated, unstable and unresponsive to further stimulation than normal B cells, and also are infrequently observed in healthy people. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases discussing online prepublication in The Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Infection Mobilizes Hematopoietic Stem Cells through Cooperative NOD-Like Receptor and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling
Scientists showed that systemic infection of mice with Escherichia coli, commonly associated with bacteremia in humans, mobilized functional hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to the spleen. Mobilized HSCs and progenitor cells gave rise to neutrophils and monocytes and contributed to limiting secondary infection. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Fucose-Specific DC-SIGN Signaling Directs T Helper Cell Type-2 Responses via IKKε- and CYLD-Dependent Bcl3 Activation
Scientists demonstrate recognition of fucose-expressing extracellular pathogens like Schistosoma mansoni and Helicobacter pylori by DC-SIGN favors T helper cell type-2 responses via activation of atypical NF-κB family member Bcl3. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Cytotoxic Markers Associate with Protection against Malaria in Human Volunteers Immunized with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites
Immunization of healthy volunteers under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis by bites from P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes (CPS immunization) induces sterile protection against malaria. Researchers investigated the association of CPS-induced cytotoxic T cell markers with protection. [J Infect Dis]
Abstract | Full Article

NOD2 Dependent DC Activation Is Necessary for Innate Immunity and Optimal CD8+ T Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus Infection
Researchers demonstrate that nucleotide oligomerization and binding domain 2 (NOD2) is critical for both innate and adaptive immune responses necessary for controlling viral replication and survival during influenza A virus infection. [J Virol] Abstract

Long-Term Functional Duration of Immune Responses to HCV NS3/4A Induced by DNA Vaccination
Scientists investigated the ability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 3/4A-DNA-based vaccines to activate long-term cell-mediated immune responses in mice. [Gene Ther] Full Article


Programmed Death 1 Expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Treated and Untreated HIV Disease
Across two large cohorts of untreated and treated individuals, researchers found consistent associations between HIV RNA levels, CD8+ T cell activation and programmed death 1 expression on CD8+ T cells. [AIDS] Abstract

Macropinocytosis and TAK1 Mediate Anti-Inflammatory to Pro-Inflammatory Macrophage Differentiation by HIV-1 Nef
Researchers showed the preferential effect of soluble HIV-1 protein Nef on anti-inflammatory M2-macrophages is mediated by TAK1 (TGF-β-activated kinase 1) and macropinocytosis. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Virus Particle Release from Glycosphingolipid-Enriched Microdomains Is Essential for Dendritic Cell-Mediated Capture and Transfer of HIV-1 and Henipavirus
Scientists hypothesized that virus assembly and budding site determines the ability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to interact with mature dendritic cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Quantifying and Predicting the Effect of Exogenous Interleukin-7 on CD4+T Cells in HIV-1 Infection
In-depth analysis of clinical data revealed the potential for interleukin (IL)-7 to achieve sustained CD4+ T cell restoration with limited IL-7 exposure in HIV-1 infected patients with immune failure despite antiretroviral therapy. [PLoS Comput Biol] Full Article

Exposure to Entry Inhibitors Alters HIV Infectiousness and Sensitivity to Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies
The CCR5-tropic HIV-1 variants BaL, AD8, and CC 1/85 were used to infect PM-1 cells in the presence of two entry inhibitors, enfuvirtide and maraviroc. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

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Tuberculosis Vaccines – Rethinking the Current Paradigm
Authors review the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis (TB) infection and propose that rather than boosting T helper 1 responses, researchers should focus on understanding protective immune responses that are lacking or insufficiently promoted by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin that can intervene at critical stages of the TB life cycle. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Relationship between Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
The current knowledge in the literature on the association between cytokine/regulatory molecule gene polymorphisms and clinical course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection is summarized, and the clinical implementations and future prospects regarding this knowledge are discussed. [World J Gastroenterol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Hepatitis C Reactivation Does Not Worsen Survival Outcomes for HIV+ Patients Diagnosed with Lymphoma
Researchers analyzed data from HIV+ patients diagnosed with lymphoma, collected over 17 years, to better understand how Hepatitis C virus infection influences survival outcomes. [Press release from Fox Chase Cancer Center discussing research presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Chicago] Press Release

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Conrad T. Prebys Gives $25 Million to Salk Institute to Support Scientific Research
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies has received a $25 million gift from San Diego philanthropist and former Salk trustee Conrad T. Prebys to support cutting-edge biological research on a wide range of diseases. [Salk Institute for Biological Studies] Press Release

TechnoVax Awarded NIH Grant to Develop a VLP Based Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine
TechnoVax, Inc. has received a one-year $509,623 SBIR grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The grant is to support the TechnoVax program for the development of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine utilizing its proprietary VLP technology. [Business Wire] Press Release

Scripps Research Institute Scientists Win $13 Million Grant in AIDS Vaccine Effort
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute has received a grant of more than $13 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease of the National Institutes of Health to study antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – which will play an essential role in the creation of any effective vaccine against HIV. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Stem Cell Agency Invests $32 Million toward Therapies for Spinal Cord Injury and HIV/AIDS
A promising treatment for patients with spinal cord injuries and a therapy aimed at helping HIV patients create an AIDS-resistant blood system were approved by the state’s stem cell agency, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. [California Institute for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW FEBS-EMBO 2014 Conference
August 30 – September 4, 2014
Paris, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate – Viruses in Allergy/Asthma (University of Manchester)

NEW Postdoctoral Associate – Bacterial Pathogenesis, Bioengineering and Cellular Biomechanics (Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute)

PhD Studentship – Microbiology & Immunology (INRS – University of Quebec)

PhD or Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Biology and Medical Sciences (University of Oslo)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of Host-Derived Antivirals for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats (Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation – CSIRO)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology and Virology (National University of Singapore)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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