Volume 2.19 | May 21

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.19 May 21, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Breakthrough in HIV/AIDS Research Gives Hope for Improved Drug Therapy
Scientists found that a drug commonly given to patients receiving kidney dialysis significantly diminishes the levels of bacteria that escape from the gut and reduces health complications in non-human primates infected with the simian form of HIV. They showed blocking the bacteria from leaving the intestine reduces chronic immune activation and inflammation. [Press release from UPMC discussing online prepublication in The Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Bystander Chronic Infection Negatively Impacts Development of CD8+ T Cell Memory
Researchers investigated whether bystander chronic infections impact differentiation of memory CD8+ T cells, the hallmark of protective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Chronic bystander infections impaired development of memory CD8+ T cells in several mouse models and humans. [Immunity]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

T Cells Kill Bacteria Captured by Transinfection from Dendritic Cells and Confer Protection in Mice
Transinfected T cells produced high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and were able to protect mice from bacterial challenge following adoptive transfer. Thus, T lymphocytes can capture and kill bacteria in a manner reminiscent of innate immunity. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Telbivudine Therapy May Shape CD4+ T Cell Response to Prevent Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Researchers found the therapeutic responses to telbivudine were especially associated with up-regulation of T helper (Th) 1 and Th17, and down-regulation of regulatory T cells. [Liver Int] Abstract

IFN-γ, but Not IL-17A, Is Required for Survival during Secondary Pulmonary Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Stain Infection
Researchers measured the number of CD4+ T cells producing interferon (IFN)-γ or interleukin (IL)-17 in the spleen and lungs of vaccinated mice on day four of the secondary response using intracellular cytokine staining in order to identify protective T cell subsets participating in the memory response. [Vaccine] Abstract

The In Vivo Expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (IVE-TB) Antigen Rv2034 Induces CD4+ T-Cells that Protect against Pulmonary Infection in HLA-DR Transgenic Mice and Guinea Pigs
The Rv2034 protein was highly immunogenic in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice and induced HLA-DR3 restricted interferon (IFN)-γ+/tumor necrosis factor+ and IFN-γ+ CD4+ T-cells, specific for an epitope encoded in peptide 31-50. [Vaccine] Abstract

The CD4 T Cell Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Murine studies indicate that the combined actions of regulatory factors such as CD4 regulatory T cells and interleukin-10 inhibit the inflammatory cytokine response and limit respiratory syncytial virus-induced disease. [Immunol Res] Abstract

HIV

Vaccine-Induced Myeloid Cell Population Dampens Protective Immunity to SIV
Results indicate that vaccine-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit protective cellular immunity and suggest that preventing MDSC induction may be critical for effective AIDS vaccination. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Promiscuous Glycan Site Recognition by Antibodies to the High-Mannose Patch of gp120 Broadens Neutralization of HIV
By measuring neutralization on an extended range of glycan site viral variants, researchers found that some broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can use alternate N-linked glycans in the absence of the N332 glycan site and therefore neutralize a substantial number of viruses lacking the site. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

HIV-1 Tat Affects the Programming and Functionality of Human CD8+ T Cells by Modulating the Expression of T-box Transcription Factors.
CD8+ T cells were activated by TCR engagement in the presence or absence of Tat. Cytokine production, killing capacity, surface phenotype and expression of transcription factors important for T-cell programming were evaluated. [AIDS] Abstract

Changes in Genital Tract Immune Cell Populations after Initiation of Intrauterine Contraception
Researchers hypothesized that when compared to baseline, use of a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) would alter HIV target cells (primarily CCR5+ CD4 cells) in the female genital tract more than a non-hormonal IUD. [Am J Obstet Gynecol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Nucleotide Signaling during Inflammation
The authors discuss how signaling events through P2 receptors alter the outcomes of inflammatory or infectious diseases. Although nucleotide signaling has been used clinically in patients before, research indicates an expanding field of opportunities for specifically targeting individual P2 receptors for the treatment of inflammatory or infectious diseases. [Nature] Abstract

Primary and Long-Term B-Cell Responses in the Upper Airway and Lung after Influenza A Virus Infection
The primary adaptive response to influenza A virus is reviewed with an emphasis on germinal center B-cell responses. [Immunol Res] Abstract

Immunotherapy of HPV Infection-Caused Genital Warts Using Low Dose Cyclophosphamide
A low dose of cyclophosphamide, a conventional chemotherapy drug, can selectively target regulatory T cells, thereby enhancing the function of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific T cells and natural killer cells leading to efficient clearance of HPV infection. [Expert Rev Clin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Sanofi Pasteur Announces Favorable Phase II Study Results for Investigational Clostridium difficile Vaccine
The Phase II trial met its primary objectives, reactions were generally mild and of short duration, and the candidate vaccine generated an immune response against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B. [Press release from PR Newswire Association LLC discussing research presented at the 114th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Boston] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
New Facility to Detect and Respond to Outbreaks of Infectious Disease
Manufactured by Germfree Inc., the facility was provided by Canada to the Caribbean Public Health Agency in cooperation with the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization. The lab will provide new capabilities to rapidly detect and respond to outbreaks of disease, whether naturally occurring or deliberately caused. [Germfree Inc.] Press Release

2014 Avant-Garde Awards Focus on Strengthening the Immune System
With proposals ranging from enhancing the immune system’s ability to fight HIV infection to improving long-term immune health in HIV-infected drug users, three scientists have been chosen to receive the 2014 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

Kymab Secures US$40 Million Investment from Two of the Largest Foundations in the World to Advance Clinical Development of Antibody Therapeutics
Kymab announced it has successfully raised US$40 million in a Series B financing. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation joins existing investor, the Wellcome Trust, each investing US$20 million. The funds will enable Kymab to maximize the potential of its Kymouse™ platform and advance its proprietary pipeline of first-in-class therapeutic human monoclonal antibodies in areas of significant unmet medical need. [Kymab Limited]
Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW FASEB Science Research Conferences – Translational Neuroimmunology: From Mechanisms to Therapeutics
July 13-18, 2014
Big Sky, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD or Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular Biology and Medical Sciences (University of Oslo)

Postdoctoral Associate – Mouse Modeling and Immune Responses (Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, MGH/HMS)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of Host-Derived Antivirals for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats (Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation – CSIRO)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology and Virology (National University of Singapore)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Düsseldorf University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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