Volume 2.18 | May 14

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.18 May 14, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Carbohydrates Direct Immunity Against Camouflaged Bacteria
In contrast to antibodies, galectins kill bacteria directly, without needing other parts of the immune system. Researchers identified several bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia alcalifaciens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, for example) targeted for killing by galectins. In some cases, only certain strains of a given bacteria were vulnerable, because only those strains carried the target glycan. [Press release from Emory University discussing online prepublication in Nature Chemical Biology] Press Release | Abstract
Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Caspase-8 and RIP Kinases Regulate Bacteria-Induced Innate Immune Responses and Cell Death
Results identify a receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1)-caspase-8/RIP3-dependent caspase-1 activation pathway after Yersinia pestis challenge. Mice defective in caspase-8 and RIP3 were also highly susceptible to infection and displayed reduced proinflammatory cytokines and myeloid cell death. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Timed Action of IL-27 Protects from Immunopathology while Preserving Defense in Influenza
Consistent with the delayed expression of endogenous Il-27p28 during influenza, systemic treatment with recombinant interleukin (IL)-27 starting at the peak of virus load resulted in a major amelioration of lung pathology, strongly reduced leukocyte infiltration and improved survival without affecting viral clearance. In contrast, early application of IL-27 impaired virus clearance and worsened disease. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article
 |  Press Release

Distinct and Complementary Roles for Aspergillus fumigatus-Specific Tr1 and Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Humans and Mice
Investigators identified an epitope derived from the cell wall glucanase Crf-1 of A. fumigatus (Crf-1/p41)-specific latent-associated peptide+ type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells in healthy humans and mice after vaccination with Crf-1/p41+zymosan. These cells produced high amounts of interleukin-10 and suppressed the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo. [Immunol Cell Biol] Full Article

Monocytes from Chronic HBV Patients React In Vitro to HBsAg and TLR by Producing Cytokines Irrespective of Stage of Disease
Scientists demonstrated that monocytes can recognize and respond to hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg), resulting in vigorous pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vitro. However, phenotype and function of the monocyte compartment in chronic HBV patients are not influenced by differences in levels of serum viral components, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms are active to avoid excessive in vivo monocyte activation.[PLoS One] Full Article

Contribution of Increased ISG15, ISGylation and Deregulated Type I IFN Signaling in Usp18 Mutant Mice during the Course of Bacterial Infections
Researchers demonstrated that regulation of type I interferon (IFN) signaling is the predominant mechanism affecting the susceptibility of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 18 (Usp18Ity9) mice to Salmonella infection and that hyperactivation of signaling leads to increased interleukin-10, deregulation of autophagic markers and increased proinflammatory cytokine production. [Genes Immun] Abstract


A Randomized Controlled Trial of Palifermin (Recombinant Human Keratinocyte Growth Factor) for the Treatment of Inadequate CD4+ T-Lymphocyte Recovery in Patients with HIV-1 Infection on Antiretroviral Therapy
Palifermin in the doses studied was not effective in improving thymic function and did not raise CD4 lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts despite virologically effective antiretroviral therapy. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Counts in Therapy-Naïve HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/HCV-Co-Infected Chinese
Researchers found plasma interleukin (IL)-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-co-infected Chinese people. HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects. The relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. [PLoS One] Full Article

Clinical, Immunological and Treatment-Related Factors Associated with Normalized CD4+/CD8+ T-Cell Ratio: Effect of Naïve and Memory T-Cell Subsets
Scientists suggest an important role for naïve CD8+ T-cell populations in normalization of the immune response to HIV-infection. [PLoS One] Full Article

Plasma LL-37 Correlates with Vitamin D and Is Reduced in HIV-1 Infected Individuals Not Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
Researchers compared plasma cathelicidin (LL-37) levels in healthy controls (HIV-) and HIV+ individuals on or off antiretroviral therapies (ART+ and ART-, respectively) and evaluated the relationship between vitamin D and LL-37 levels. [J Med Microbiol] Abstract

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Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models
The Maturation of Antibody Technology for the HIV Epidemic
Authors summarize recent advances in antibody-based technologies and discuss the possibilities and challenges of using these advances to design prophylactics and therapeutics against HIV. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Regulation of Intestinal Health and Disease by Innate Lymphoid Cells
The author discusses the associations of altered intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with human gastrointestinal diseases, and the functional consequences of targeting ILCs in mouse models. [Int Immunol] Abstract  |  Full Article

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Indiana University Biologists Receive $6.2 Million to Advance Research on Bacterial Evolution
Indiana University biologists will receive over $6.2 million from the U.S. Army Research Office to study how bacteria evolve in response to both their internal, population-influenced environments and their external natural environment. [Indiana University] Press Release

Multimillion-Dollar Grant Propels Struggling Lab toward HIV Cure
A George Mason University researcher has won a $3.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health that may lead to a way for curing HIV in the next five years. [George Mason University] Press Release

Explorer Grants Target Infectious Microbes
Dr. Wiles and her team will investigate how infectious microbes adapt to live and cause disease in their hosts and what factors influence this arms race. To do this, they will use a bacterium that infects laboratory mice using the same modus operandi as life-threatening human pathogens. [Health Research Council of New Zealand] Press Release

One Year Follow-Up from RSV F-Protein Vaccine Candidate Phase I Elderly Trial Demonstrates Sustained Levels of Immune Response
Novavax, Inc. reported that for the group receiving the 90μg dose without adjuvant, anti-F levels and palivizumab competing antibody were significantly elevated over baseline at day 118, with a geometric mean of 130μg/ml, and at day 180, with a geometric mean of 114μg/ml. [Novavax, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW 44th Annual Meeting German Society for Immunology
September 17-20, 2014
Bonn, Germany

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NEW Postdoctoral Associate – Mouse Modeling and Immune Responses (Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, MGH/HMS)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of Host-Derived Antivirals for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats (Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation – CSIRO)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology and Virology (National University of Singapore)

Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Düsseldorf University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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