Volume 2.17 | May 7

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.17 May 7, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Oral Infection Drives a Distinct Population of Intestinal Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells with Enhanced Protective Function
Investigators found that oral infection with Listeria monocytogenes induced a robust intestinal CD8 T cell response and blocking effector T cell migration showed that intestinal resident memory T cells were critical for secondary protection. [Immunity] Abstract
Free Poster: Quick Reference for Mouse Immune Cell Frequencies and Percentages
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 Are Polymorphic Paired Receptors that Modulate Neutrophil and Amnion Signaling Responses to Group B Streptococcus
Researchers showed that β-protein-expressing Group B Streptococcus binds to both sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 5 (Siglec-5) and Siglec-14 on neutrophils and that the latter engagement counteracts pathogen-induced host immune suppression by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT signaling pathways. [J Exp Med] Abstract | Press Release

Caspase-8 Mediates Caspase-1 Processing and Innate Immune Defense in Response to Bacterial Blockade of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling
Data demonstrate that receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1, Fas-associated death domain, and caspase-8 are required for YopJ-induced cell death and caspase-1 activation and suggest that caspase-8-mediated cell death overrides blockade of immune signaling by YopJ to promote anti-Yersinia immune defense. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

NLRX1 Prevents Mitochondrial Induced Apoptosis and Enhances Macrophage Antiviral Immunity by Interacting with Influenza Virus PB1-F2 Protein
Researchers found the host mitochondrial protein nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR)X1 binds to viral protein PB1-F2, preventing influenza A virus-induced macrophage apoptosis and promoting both macrophage survival and Type I IFN signaling. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Ubiquitination by SAG Regulates Macrophage Survival/Death and Immune Response during Infection
Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, researchers showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, they observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Tuberculin Skin Test Reversion following Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Reflects Diversity of Immune Response to Primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Researchers aimed to measure frequency of tuberculin skin test (TST) reversion following isoniazid preventive therapy, and variation in interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), in healthy Ugandan Tuberculosis healthy household contacts with primary Mtb infection evidenced by TST conversion. [PLoS One] Full Article

HIV

HIV and HCV Activate the Inflammasome in Monocytes and Macrophages via Endosomal Toll-Like Receptors without Induction of Type 1 Interferon
Investigators demonstrated that HIV and HCV activate the inflammasome, but not Type I interferon production, in monocytes and macrophages in an infection-independent process that requires clathrin-mediated endocytosis and recognition of the virus by distinct endosomal Toll-like receptors. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

In Utero Exposure to Maternal HIV Infection Alters T-Cell Immune Responses to Vaccination in HIV-Uninfected Infants
In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. To evaluate whether immune dysfunction contributes to this vulnerability of HEU infants, researchers conducted a longitudinal, observational cohort study to assess T-cell immune responses to infant vaccines (Mycobacterium bovis BCG and acellular pertussis) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B. [AIDS] Abstract

Ineffectual Targeting of HIV-1 Nef by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Acute Infection Results in No Functional Impairment or Viremia Reduction
Scientists investigated whether CD8+ T lymphocyte targeting of Nef during acute infection contributes to immune control by disrupting its function. [J Virol] Abstract

Cytomegalovirus Replication in Semen Is Associated with Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T cell Activation during Antiretroviral Treatment
To determine the connections between cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated immune activation and the size of the viral reservoir, researchers evaluated the interactions between asymptomatic seminal CMV replication, levels of T cell activation and proliferation in blood, and the size and the transcriptional activity of the HIV DNA reservoir in blood from 53 HIV-infected men on long-term antiretroviral therapy with suppressed HIV RNA in blood plasma. [J Virol] Abstract

Host Genetics and Immune Control of HIV-1 Infection: Fine Mapping for the Extended Human MHC Region in an African Cohort
Multiple major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci encoding human leukocyte antigens have allelic variants unequivocally associated with differential immune control of HIV-1 infection. Researchers tested the utility of a custom fine-mapping platform (the ImmunoChip) for 172 HIV-1 seroconverters and 449 seroprevalent individuals from Lusaka, Zambia, with a focus on more than 6400 informative extended MHC single nucleotide polymorphisms. [Genes Immun] Abstract

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
REVIEWS
Exploitation of the Host Ubiquitin System by Human Bacterial Pathogens
The authors highlight the ways in which human bacterial pathogens target ubiquitylation to subvert and manipulate host defense systems, with a focus on the role of molecular mimicry and secreted bacterial effector proteins. [Nat Rev Microbiol] Abstract

MicroRNAs and the Immune Response to Respiratory Virus Infections
The immune response to respiratory viruses such as rhinovirus, influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus is associated with an altered expression of distinct microRNAs (miRNAs), and the changes in the miRNA expression profile in epithelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of both acute and chronic airway disease. [Expert Rev Clin Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Discovery Helps UAMS Researcher Land $1.8 Million NIH Grant for Herpes Virus and Cancer Research
A surprise discovery that could lead to new treatments for herpes viruses that infect more than 90 percent of the world’s adult population has led to a $1.8 million grant to the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) from the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences] Press Release

Etubics and University of Texas Medical Branch Awarded Grant for Development of Universal Influenza Vaccine
Etubics Corporation announced that it has been awarded a grant of $4.4 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to develop a universal influenza vaccine. [Etubics Corporation] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn how ex vivo models drive progress in HIV research. Read the research profiles.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Natural Killer Cell Symposium 2014
September 10-12, 2014
Hannover, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Principal Investigator – Molecular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Inflammation Research Center – VIB-UGent)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Düsseldorf University Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Senior Research Fellow / Associate Professor – Immunology (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Professorship Position – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Medical University of Vienna)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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