Volume 2.16 | Apr 30

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.16 April 30, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Team Finds New Point of Attack on HIV for Vaccine Development
Researchers have discovered a new vulnerable site on the HIV virus. The newly identified site can be attacked by human antibodies in a way that neutralizes the infectivity of a wide variety of HIV strains. [Press release from The Scripps Research Institute discussing two online prepublications in Immunity]
Press Release | Abstract 1 | Abstract 2
Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A New Transcriptional Role for Matrix Metalloproteinase-12 in Antiviral Immunity
Interferon-α (IFN-α) is essential for antiviral immunity, but in the absence of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) or IκBα (encoded by NFKBIA) researchers showed that IFN-α is retained in the cytosol of virus-infected cells and is not secreted. They showed here that after macrophage secretion, MMP-12 is transported into virus-infected cells. [Nat Med] Abstract

Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Promote Microbial Mutagenesis and Pathoadaptation in Chronic Infections
Researchers’ findings confirmed the current view that reactive oxygen species can promote mucoidy in vitro, but revealed polymorphonucleocytes are proficient at inducing mucoid conversion in the absence of an oxidative burst. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with Mycoplasma arginini Secrete Complement C3 to Regulate Immunoglobulin Production in B Lymphocytes
Scientists showed that the conditioned medium (CM) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with a mycoplasma strain, Mycoplasma arginini, has marked inhibitory effects on immunoglobulin production by lipopolysaccharide/interleukin-4-induced B cells compared with mycoplasma-free MSC-CM. [Cell Death Dis]
Full Article

Human Immune Responses to H. pylori HLA Class II Epitopes Identified by Immunoinformatic Methods
To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. These sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

Reductive Methylation and Mutation of an Anthrax Toxin Fusion Protein Modulates its Stability and Cytotoxicity
Investigators characterized an anti-cancer fusion protein consisting of anthrax lethal factor and the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A by mutating the N-terminal amino acids and by reductive methylation to dimethylate all lysines. The two described modifications offer unique advantages such as increased cytotoxic activity and diminished antibody recognition, and thus may be applicable to other therapeutic proteins that act in the cytosol of cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Antiviral Activity of Ginseng Extract against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Researchers investigated whether Panax Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) has in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. KRGE treatment suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory cytokine genes (IL-6 and IL-8) and the formation of reactive oxygen species in epithelial cell cultures. [Int J Mol Med] Abstract | Press Release


Alterations in Cholesterol Metabolism Restrict HIV-1 Trans Infection in Nonprogressors
Researchers showed that two types of professional antigen-presenting cells, i.e., dendritic cells and B lymphocytes, from HIV-1-infected nonprogressors lacked the ability to mediate HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells. [mBio] Full Article | Press Release

NK Cells Are Primed by ANRS MVAHIV-Infected Dendritic Cells, via a Mechanism Involving NKG2D and Membrane-Bound IL-15, to Efficiently Control HIV-1 Infection in CD4+ T Cells
Researchers showed that Modified Vaccinia Ankara encoding an HIV polypeptide (MVAHIV)-primed natural killer (NK) cells display a greater capacity to control HIV-1 infection in autologous CD4+ T cells. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

NKT Cell Depletion in Humans during Early HIV Infection
Researchers studied human peripheral blood natural killer T (NKT) cell levels, phenotype and function in 31 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects not on antiretroviral treatment from a mean of 4 months to 2 years after HIV infection. They found that peripheral CD4+ NKT cells were substantially depleted and dysfunctional by 4 months after HIV infection. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

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Innate Immunity to Influenza Virus Infection
The authors discuss the various ways in which the innate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors to detect and respond to influenza virus infection. They consider whether the outcome of innate sensor stimulation promotes antiviral resistance or disease tolerance, and propose rational treatment strategies for the acute respiratory disease that is caused by influenza virus infection. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Coral Reefs Provide Potent New Anti-HIV Proteins
Researchers have discovered a new class of proteins capable of blocking the HIV virus from penetrating T-cells, raising hope that the proteins could be adapted for use in gels or sexual lubricants to provide a potent barrier against HIV infection. The proteins, called cnidarins, were found in a feathery coral collected in waters off Australia’s northern coast. [Press release from ScienceDaily discussing research presented at Experimental Biology 2014, San Diego] Abstract

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Researcher Gets $2.8 Million Grant to Develop Drugs to Prevent, Treat RSV Infections
Dr. Richard Plemper, a professor in the new Institute for Biomedical Sciences at Georgia State University, has received a five-year, $2.83 million federal grant to develop novel therapeutics against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. [Georgia State University] Press Release

AbbVie Submits New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for its Investigational, All-Oral, Interferon-Free Therapy for the Treatment of Hepatitis C
AbbVie submitted its New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seeking approval for the company’s investigational, all-oral, interferon-free regimen for the treatment of adult patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection. [AbbVie Inc.] Press Release

Gates-Backed TB Drug to Enter Late-Stage Testing
The first experimental drug that fights both conventional and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis (TB) is advancing to late-stage clinical testing, raising hope for a new way to stem the growing threat of drug-resistant TB. [Reuters] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW EMBO Conference on Innate Lymphoid Cells
September 29 – October 1, 2014
Paris, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (Duesseldorf University Hospital)

NEW Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Senior Research Fellow / Associate Professor – Immunology (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Professorship Position – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Medical University of Vienna)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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