Volume 2.15 | Apr 23

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.15 April 23, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Study Sheds Light on How the Immune System Protects Children from Malaria
Children who live in regions of the world where malaria is common can mount an immune response to infection with malaria parasites that may enable them to avoid repeated bouts of high fever and illness and partially control the growth of malaria parasites in their bloodstream. [Press release from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease discussing online prepublication in PLoS Pathogens] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Microbiota Regulates Neutrophil Homeostasis and Host Resistance to Escherichia coli K1 Sepsis in Neonatal Mice
Researchers exposed pregnant mouse dams to antibiotics in drinking water to limit transfer of maternal microbes to the neonates. Antibiotic exposure of dams decreased the total number and composition of microbes in the intestine of the neonates. This was associated with decreased numbers of circulating and bone marrow neutrophils and granulocyte/macrophage-restricted progenitor cells in the bone marrow of antibiotic-treated and germ-free neonates. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

An Outer Membrane Channel Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Exotoxin Activity
Researchers showed that the M. tuberculosis protein Rv3903c (channel protein with necrosis-inducing toxin, CpnT) consists of an N-terminal channel domain that is used for uptake of nutrients across the outer membrane and a secreted toxic C-terminal domain. Infection experiments revealed that CpnT is required for survival and cytotoxicity of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

IL-18, but Not IL-12, Induces Production of IFN-γ in the Immunosuppressive Environment of HPV16 E7 Transgenic Hyperplastic Skin
Findings showed that IL-18 contributes to inducing IFN-γ in an immunosuppressive cutaneous environment caused by viral oncogene-driven hyperplasia. [J Invest Dermatol] Abstract

Release of Cystic Fibrosis Airway Inflammatory Markers from Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Stimulated Human Neutrophils Involves NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Extracellular DNA Trap Formation
Researchers showed that human neutrophils release large amounts of neutrophil extracellular traps in the presence of P. aeruginosa. [J Immunol] Abstract

High-Throughput Identification and Dendritic Cell-Based Functional Validation of MHC Class I-Restricted Mycobacterium tuberculosis Epitopes
Researchers used dendritic cells transfected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen-encoding mRNA to drive antigen expression. Using this strategy, they have identified five novel peptide epitopes from the Mtb proteins Apa, Mtb8.4 and Mtb19. [Sci Rep] Full Article


Tetherin Antagonism by Vpu Protects HIV-Infected Cells from Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
Scientists reported that mutations in HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) that impair tetherin antagonism increase the susceptibility of HIV-infected cells to antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and conversely that RNAi knockdown of tetherin, but not other cellular proteins down-modulated by Vpu, decreases the susceptibility of HIV-infected cells to ADCC. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Phenotype and Susceptibility to HIV Infection of CD4+ Th17 Cells in the Human Female Reproductive Tract
Researchers analyzed the phenotype and susceptibility to HIV infection of CD4+ T cell in the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of the female reproductive tract. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Natural Killer Cell and T-Cell Subset Distributions and Activation Influence Susceptibility to Perinatal HIV-1 Infection
This case-control study compared cord blood natural killer and T-cell populations of HIV-1 exposed infants who subsequently acquired infection by 1 month (cases) to those who remained uninfected by 1 year of life (controls). Control specimens were selected by proportional match on maternal viral load. [AIDS] Abstract

Functional Avidity and IL-2/Perforin Production Is Linked to the Emergence of Mutations within HLA-B*5701-Restricted Epitopes and HIV-1 Disease Progression
Viral escape from HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells has been demonstrated in numerous studies previously. However, the qualitative features driving the emergence of mutations within epitopes are still unclear. Investigators aimed to distinguish whether specific functional characteristics of HLA-B*5701-restricted CD8+ T cells influence the emergence of mutations in high-risk progressors versus low-risk progressors. [J Immunol] Abstract

Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in TLR7 (Gln11Leu) and TLR9 (1635A/G) with a Higher CD4 T Cell Count during HIV Infection
Researchers aimed to determine the relation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 (Gln11Leu) and TLR9 (1635A/G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the damage to the immune system during HIV infection as reflected by the average CD4 T cell count. [Immunol Lett] Abstract

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
Emergency Granulopoiesis
The authors discuss the molecular and cellular events that regulate emergency granulopoiesis, a process that is crucial for host survival. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions
Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. The authors review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. [Viruses] Abstract | Download Full Article | Press Release

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

BIT's 4th Annual World Congress of Microbes 2014 (WCM-2014)
University of Zurich Tests Immune Cells on the International Space Station
The human body is fine-tuned to Earth’s gravity. A team headed by Professor Oliver Ullrich from the University of Zurich’s (UZH) Institute of Anatomy is conducting an experiment on the International Space Station to study whether this also applies to human cells. The transporter spaceship Dragon lifted off from the Cape Canaveral launch center in Florida with a cargo of UZH immune cells on board. [University of Zurich] Press Release

Dynavax Initiates Phase III Study of HEPLISAV-B(TM)
Dynavax Technologies Corporation announced initiation of a new Phase III clinical trial of HEPLISAV-B, its investigational adult hepatitis B vaccine. This large safety and immunogenicity study (known as HBV-23) was designed to address the Complete Response Letter regarding the HEPLISAV-B Biologics License Application that was issued to Dynavax by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Dynavax Technologies Corporation] Press Release

DesignMedix Awarded $3 Million to Develop New Malaria Drug
Biotech startup DesignMedix has received an almost $3 million NIH grant toward the development of a drug, which the firm claims is an inexpensive cure for drug-resistant malaria that is as safe as the antimalarial treatment chloroquine. [Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News] Press Release

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NEW Chemotactic Cytokines: Positioning Cells in Immunity and Disease
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Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Mucosal Pathogenesis Mechanisms (McMaster University)

Senior Research Fellow / Associate Professor – Immunology (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Professorship Position – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Medical University of Vienna)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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