Volume 2.14 | Apr 16

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.14 April 16, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Researchers Find that Influenza Has an Achilles’ Heel
A study revealed that a drug that inhibits a molecule called prostaglandin E2 increases survival rates in mice infected with a lethal dose of the H1N1 flu virus. [Press release from McGill University discussing online prepublication in Immunity] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Free Poster: Quick Reference for Mouse Immune Cell Frequencies and Percentages
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica Contributes to Cell Killing and Tissue Invasion
Researchers report the discovery that amoebae kill by ingesting distinct pieces of living human cells, resulting in intracellular calcium elevation and eventual cell death. The internalization of fragments of living human cells is reminiscent of trogocytosis observed between immune cells, but amoebic trogocytosis differs because it results in death. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Neutrophils Recruited by IL-22 in Peripheral Tissues Function as TRAIL-Dependent Antiviral Effectors against MCMV
Investigating the role of the cytokine IL-22 in murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, researchers discovered an unanticipated function for neutrophils as potent antiviral effector cells that restrict viral replication and associated pathogenesis in peripheral organs. [Cell Host Microbe]
Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Responses to a Gut Commensal Molecule via Both Innate and Adaptive Mechanisms
Polysaccharide A (PSA), the archetypical immunomodulatory molecule of the gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis, induces regulatory T cells to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. The cellular mediators of PSA’s immunomodulatory properties are incompletely understood. In a mouse model of colitis, scientists found that PSA requires both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to generate protection. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Hepatitis C Virus Triggers Mitochondrial Fission and Attenuates Apoptosis to Promote Viral Persistence
Researchers showed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) perturbs mitochondrial dynamics by promoting mitochondrial fission followed by mitophagy, which attenuates HCV-induced apoptosis. Interference of HCV-induced mitochondrial fission and mitophagy by Drp1 silencing suppressed HCV secretion, with a concomitant decrease in cellular glycolysis and ATP levels, as well as enhanced innate immune signaling. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

CD209a Expression on Dendritic Cells Is Critical for the Development of Pathogenic Th17 Cell Responses in Murine Schistosomiasis
Researchers showed by gene profiling that CBA dendritic cell (DCs) display an 18-fold higher expression of the C-type lectin receptor CD209a, a murine homolog of human DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin, compared with C57BL/6 DCs. Higher CD209a expression was observed in CBA splenic and granuloma APC subpopulations, but only DCs induced Th17 cell differentiation in response to schistosome eggs. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

HIV

Spontaneous Control of HIV Replication, but Not HAART-Induced Viral Suppression Is Associated with Lower Activation of Immune Cells
HIV replication control is important to reduce AIDS progression. Researchers determined frequency and activation status of immune cells in spontaneous HIV controllers vs. individuals with HAART controlled viral load. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Altered Innate Immune Development in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants
Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, researchers contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, where early-life infectious disease risk is exceptionally high. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Delay in cART Initiation Results in Persistent Immune Dysregulation and Poor Recovery of T-Cell Phenotype Despite a Decade of Successful HIV Suppression
Successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases levels of CD4+ T-cells, however this increase may not accurately reflect long-term immune recovery since T-cell dysregulation and loss of T-cell homeostasis often persist. The authors therefore assessed the impact of a decade of effective cART on immune regulation, T-cell homeostasis, and overall T-cell phenotype. [PLoS One] Full Article

Monocyte Activation from Interferon-α in HIV Infection Increases Acetylated Low-Density Lipoprotein Uptake and ROS Production
Researchers posit that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection augments formation of arterial plaques by triggering monocyte activation with a type I interferon profile, which induces scavenger receptor A expression, lipid uptake, and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. [J Interferon Cytokine Res] Abstract

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Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
 
REVIEWS
Inflammation and Tuberculosis: Host-Directed Therapies
The authors review current concepts of inflammation in tuberculosis disease and discuss candidate pathways for host-directed therapies in order to achieve better clinical outcomes. [J Intern Med] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

2nd Annual Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
NIH Funds Influenza Research and Surveillance Network
Influenza scientists at five sites in the United States are to receive funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to collaborate with investigators around the globe in a network designed to advance understanding of influenza viruses and how they cause disease. [National Institutes of Health (NIH)]
Press Release

NIAID Awards $5.3 Million to Seattle Children’s Research Institute in Conjunction with Micronics for Development of Global Surveillance of Influenza Strains at Point-of-Care
Seattle Children’s Research Institute announced that Tim Rose, PhD in partnership with Micronics, Inc. has been awarded a $5.3 million five-year grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to develop a highly accurate and easy-to-use point-of-care diagnostic tool and global surveillance system to be used to identify and track current and new strains of influenza viruses faster and more cost effectively than current technologies. [Seattle Children’s Research Institute] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Congress 2014
June 7-11, 2014
Copenhagen, Denmark

NEW World Vaccine Congress Asia
June 9-12, 2014
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Senior Research Fellow / Associate Professor – Immunology (Monash University)

Postdoctoral Position – Infectious Disease and Novel Autoimmune Disease Models (The Wistar Institute)

Professorship Position – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Medical University of Vienna)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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