Volume 2.12 | Apr 2

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.12 April 2, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Childhood Virus May Increase Type 1 Diabetes Risk
The most common cause of severe diarrhea in children, the rotavirus infection, has been shown to accelerate the development of type 1 diabetes in mice, according to new research. The study explored the ways the rotavirus infection contributes to autoimmune disease in mice, and researchers believe the breakthrough could be relevant to human infection with rotavirus. [Press release from the University of Melbourne discussing online prepublication in PLoS Pathogens] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Vibrio cholerae Type VI Secretion System Employs Diverse Effector Modules for Intraspecific Competition
All V. cholerae strains sequenced to date harbor genes for the type VI secretion system that translocates effectors into neighboring eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Researchers report that the effectors encoded within these conserved gene clusters differ widely among V. cholerae strains, and that immunity proteins encoded immediately downstream from the effector genes protect their host from neighboring bacteria producing corresponding effectors. [Nat Commun] Full Article

The Mucosal Inflammatory Response to Non-Typhoidal Salmonella in the Intestine Is Blunted by IL-10 during Concurrent Malaria Parasite Infection
Researchers reported that, in both a ligated ileal loop model and a mouse colitis model, malaria parasites caused a global suppression of gut inflammatory responses and blunted the neutrophil influx that is characteristic of non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

NKT Cells Determine Titer and Subtype Profile of Virus-Specific IgG Antibodies during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Investigators analyzed the role of invariant NKT cells in the generation of Abs against HSV type 1. [J Immunol] Abstract

Activation of Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain 2 (NOD2) by Human Cytomegalovirus Initiates Innate Immune Responses and Restricts Virus Replication
Researchers report that infection with human cytomegalovirus results in significant induction of NOD2 expression, beginning as early as 2 hours post infection and increasing steadily 24 hours post infection and afterwards. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73) Regulates Host Inflammatory Responses and Exacerbates Murine Salmonellosis
Scientists studied the expressions of CD39 and CD73 in tissues, and T helper cells in mice after Salmonella infection and evaluated the role of CD73 in regulating immune responses and bacterial clearance in wild-type and CD73-deficient mice. [Sci Reports] Full Article


Heat Shock Protein 90 Controls HIV-1 Reactivation from Latency
The authors report that specific inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 such as 17-(N-allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and AUY922 prevent HIV-1 reactivation in CD4+ T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Quantification of HIV-1 Latency Reversal in Resting CD4+ T Cells from Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
Scientists quantified the fraction of HIV-1 proviruses in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy that were reactivated ex vivo with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or antibodies to CD3/CD28. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

TNFα Is Associated with Viral Control and Early Disease Progression in Patients with HIV-1 Infection
Patients with untreated primary HIV-1 infection were studied to determine associations of inflammatory proteins with early disease progression. High plasma TNFα levels were significantly associated with increased viral load set point, and shorter time to CD4+ T-cell count less than 500 cells/mm3 and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Maraviroc Reduces Regulatory T Cells in ART-Naïve HIV-Infected Subjects
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key role in HIV-associated immunopathology and are susceptible to Maraviroc-mediated CCR5 blockade. Researchers evaluated the effect of Maraviroc on Tregs. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures
Researchers present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic vaginal microbiome (VMB) from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. Results showed that their culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

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Modulation of HIV-1 Immunity by Adjuvants
This review summarizes the role of adjuvants in eliciting desirable antibody responses against HIV-1 with particular emphasis on both historical context and recent developments. [Curr Opin HIV AIDS] Abstract

The Innate Immune Response to HIV-1: To Sense or Not to Sense
Several research groups have made advances in understanding the innate immune response to HIV-1, although their findings differ. This article reviews the recent findings and discusses the similarities and differences. [DNA Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Scripps Florida Scientist Awarded $2.3 Million to Study Dengue Fever and Related Viruses
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have been awarded $2.3 million from the National Institutes of Health to study a category of viruses that cause dengue fever, West Nile, yellow fever and other diseases spread by mosquitoes and ticks. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Janssen Submits New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for a Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet of HIV-1 Medicine Darunavir with Cobicistat as Part of Combination HIV Therapy
Janssen Research & Development, LLC has submitted a New Drug Application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seeking approval for a once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combination tablet containing darunavir, a protease inhibitor developed by Janssen R&D Ireland and marketed as PREZISTA® in the U.S., with cobicistat, an investigational pharmacokinetic enhancer or boosting agent, developed by Gilead Sciences, Inc. for use in combination with other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) medicines. [Janssen Research & Development, LLC] Press Release

Arrowhead Completes Enrollment of First Cohort in Phase IIa Trial of Chronic Hepatitis B Candidate ARC-520
Arrowhead Research Corporation announced that the first cohort of eight patients has been fully enrolled and dosed in a Phase IIa clinical trial of ARC-520, its RNAi therapeutic for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. [Arrowhead Research Corporation] Press Release

Institute for Genome Sciences Awarded FDA Contract to Expand Genome Sequence Database for Pathogen Identification
Researchers at the Institute for Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have been awarded a research program contract from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to sequence, assemble, and annotate a population of bacterial pathogens using two high-throughput sequencing technologies in support of the expansion of a vetted public reference database. [Institute for Genome Sciences]
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NEW BIT’s 4th Annual Symposium of Bacteriology and Infection (SBI-2014)
June 26-29, 2014
Dalian, China

NEW BIT’s 4th Annual Symposium of Antiparasites (SAP-2014)
June 26-29, 2014
Dalian, China

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Professorship Position – Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine (Medical University of Vienna)

NEW Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

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