Volume 2.11 | Mar 26

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.11 March 26, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Instant Immune Booster Dramatically Improves Outcome of Bacterial Meningitis and Pneumonia
Researchers have produced an artificial version of a naturally occurring protein, properdin, which has been found to successfully combat bacterial pneumonia and meningitis when tested in mice. The study found artificially produced properdin to be 100 times more efficient at fighting infection than naturally occurring properdin, offering significant protection in mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis infections. [Press release from EurekAlert! discussing online prepublication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA] Press Release | Abstract | Full Article
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HI
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Inverse Agonist of Estrogen-Related Receptor γ Controls Salmonella typhimurium Infection by Modulating Host Iron Homeostasis
The authors report that estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) modulates the intramacrophage proliferation of S. typhimurium by altering host iron homeostasis, and they demonstrated an antimicrobial effect of an ERRγ inverse agonist. [Nat Med] Abstract

Noncanonical NF-κB Pathway Controls the Production of Type I Interferons in Antiviral Innate Immunity
Production of type I interferons (IFN-I) is a crucial innate immune mechanism against viral infections. IFN-I induction is subject to negative regulation by both viral and cellular factors, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Researchers report that the noncanonical NF-κB pathway was stimulated along with innate immune cell differentiation and viral infections and had a vital role in negatively regulating IFN-I induction. [Immunity] Abstract

Molecular Basis for Specific Recognition of Bacterial Ligands by NAIP/NLRC4 Inflammasomes
NLR (nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]- and leucine-rich repeat [LRR]-containing) proteins mediate innate immune sensing of pathogens in mammals and plants. How NLRs detect their cognate stimuli remains poorly understood. Here, researchers analyzed ligand recognition by NLR apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) inflammasomes. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunopathogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model: Induction of Human-Specific Liver Fibrosis and M2-Like Macrophages
The mechanisms of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and immunopathogenesis are poorly understood due to a lack of a robust small animal model. Researchers report the development of a humanized mouse model with both human immune system and human liver cells by reconstituting the immunodeficient A2/NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice with human HLA-A2 transgene) with human hematopoietic stem cells and liver progenitor cells. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Regulatory T Cells Promote a Protective Th17-Associated Immune Response to Intestinal Bacterial Infection with C. rodentium
Scientists studied the impact of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) on the infectious and inflammatory processes elicited by the bacterial pathogen C. rodentium. Surprisingly, they found that depletion of Treg by diphtheria toxin in the Foxp3DTR mouse model resulted in impaired bacterial clearance in the colon, exacerbated body weight loss, and increased systemic dissemination of bacteria. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract


New Ex Vivo Approaches Distinguish Effective and Ineffective Single Agents for Reversing HIV-1 Latency In Vivo
Using a new ex vivo assay, researchers demonstrated that none of the latency-reversing agents (LRAs) tested induced outgrowth of HIV-1 from the latent reservoir of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay specific for all HIV-1 mRNAs, they demonstrated that LRAs that do not cause T cell activation do not induce substantial increases in intracellular HIV-1 mRNA in patient cells; only the protein kinase C agonist bryostatin-1 caused significant increases. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Stabilized Human TRIM5 Alpha Protects Human T Cells from HIV-1 Infection
Using primary human CD4 T cells, scientists investigated the ability of human (hu)TRIM5α, rhesus TRIM5α, and the huTRIM5αR323-332 B30.2/SPRY patch-mutant to form cytoplasmic bodies, postulated as key components of the HIV-1 restriction apparatus. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Macrophage Inflammatory Markers Are Associated with Subclinical Carotid Artery Disease in Women with Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Hepatitis C Virus Infection
The macrophage inflammatory markers galectin-3-binding protein, soluble cluster of differentiation 163, and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 are significantly associated with carotid artery disease in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol] Abstract

HIV-1 Infection Impairs Regulatory T Cell Suppressive Capacity on a Per-Cell Basis
In vitro HIV-GFP infected and non-infected regulatory T cells (Tregs) were isolated by flow-based cell-sorting to investigate Treg suppressive capacity and gene expression profiles. Data show that HIV-1-infected Tregs were significantly less suppressive than non-infected Tregs and demonstrated down-regulation of genes critical to Treg function. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Chemokine CXCL8 Promotes HIV-1 Replication in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages and Primary Microglia via Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway
Researchers investigated the effect of CXCL8 on productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages and primary human microglia. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Whitepaper: Automated Cell Isolation Enables More Relevant HIV Models
Vaccines that Stimulate T Cell Immunity to HIV-1: The Next Step
Findings obtained with the simian immunodeficiency virus monkey model have provided new evidence that stimulating effective CD8+ T cell immunity could provide protection, and the authors explore the path forward for optimizing such responses in humans. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

Hepcidin and the Iron Enigma in HCV Infection
The authors discuss recent advances in the exciting crosstalk of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling pathways by which iron and hepcidin production influences HCV-induced liver disease. [Virulence]
Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

2nd Annual Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets
Genocea’s Therapeutic Vaccine for Herpes Simplex-2 Infection Shows Highly Significant Reductions in Clinical Symptoms at Six Months
Updated Phase I/IIa results with GEN-003, a vaccine candidate under development by Genocea Biosciences, Inc. for the treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, showed the experimental vaccine to generate highly significant reductions in both the number of clinical lesion days and rate of viral shedding at six months after the final vaccine dose. [Press release from Genocea Biosciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the World Vaccine Congress, Washington] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn how ex vivo models drive progress in HIV research. Read the research profiles.
Japanese Fund Awards $12 Million to Develop Innovative Tools for Chagas Disease, Schistosomiasis, Parasitic Roundworms and Tuberculosis
The Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT) announced three grants worth a total of US$6.8 million to speed the development of innovative drugs for some of the world’s most neglected diseases – schistosomiasis, Chagas disease and parasitic roundworms. GHIT also announced a second round of funding of US$5.65 million for a novel vaccine candidate for tuberculosis and unveiled a new investment program that will help researchers find the most promising new drug candidates to battle these and other infectious diseases. [Global Health Innovative Technology Fund] Press Release

Consortium Led by Scripps Research Institute Scientist Wins Up to $28 Million from NIH to Find Best Proposed Ebola Treatment
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded a five-year grant of up to $28 million to establish a new center for excellence to find an antibody “cocktail” to fight the deadly Ebola virus. The project, which involves researchers from 15 institutions, will be led by Erica Ollmann Saphire, professor at The Scripps Research Institute. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Sanofi Pasteur Allies with SK Chemical Co. of South Korea on Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Sanofi Pasteur announced a long-term strategic cooperation with SK Chemical Co. to co-develop an innovative pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. [Sanofi Pasteur] Press Release

Breakthrough in HIV and Hep C Vaccine Research
Plans for a new type of DNA vaccine to protect against the deadly HIV and Hepatitis C viruses have taken an important step forward, with University of Adelaide researchers applying for a patent based on groundbreaking new research. Professor Gowans’ work has focused on utilizing the so-called “accessory” or “messenger” cells in the immune system, called dendritic cells, to activate an immune response. [University of Adelaide]
Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Viral Hepatitis Congress 2014
October 9-11, 2014
Frankfurt, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Host-Pathogen Interaction in Mycobacterial Infection (Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – Virus-Host Interactions and Liver Disease (University of Strasbourg)

Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

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