Volume 2.10 | Mar 19

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.10 March 19, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Common Genetic Variants Modulate Pathogen-Sensing Responses in Human Dendritic Cells
The authors identified natural genetic variants that underlie variation in the host innate immune response to infection and analyze the mechanisms by which such variants alter these responses. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Bacterial Tyrosine Phosphatase Inhibits Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor Activation
Researchers report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR EFR, which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. [Science]
Abstract
| Press Release

NK Cell Intrinsic Regulation of MIP-1α by Granzyme M
During Listeria monocytogenes infection, researchers observed markedly reduced secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) in livers of Granzyme M-deficient mice, which resulted in significantly impaired natural killer (NK) cell recruitment. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

IL-12 and IL-27 Regulate the Phagolysosomal Pathway in Mycobacteria-Infected Human Macrophages
Scientists showed that supplying interleukin (IL)-12 and neutralizing IL-27 enhanced acidification and fusion of mycobacterial-containing phagosomes with lysosomes. [Cell Commun Signal] Full Article

Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Inhibits Innate Immune Response in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
The authors found that human dendritic cells (DC) infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. [PLoS One] Full Article

Secreted Candida parapsilosis Lipase Modulates the Immune Response of Primary Human Macrophages
Investigators compared the response of human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages to a wild type as well as a lipase deficient C. parapsilosis strain that has been previously established in their lab. Although macrophages phagocytosed both strains with similar efficiency, lipase mutants were killed more efficiently according to fluorescent microscopic analysis. [Virulence] Abstract

HIV

Polyfunctional Fc-Effector Profiles Mediated by IgG Subclass Selection Distinguish RV144 and VAX003 Vaccines
Researchers showed that the RV144 regimen elicited nonneutralizing antibodies with highly coordinated Fc-mediated effector responses through the selective induction of highly functional immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3). By contrast, VAX003 elicited monofunctional antibody responses influenced by IgG4 selection, which was promoted by repeated AIDSVAX B/E protein boosts. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Vaccine-Induced Env V1-V2 IgG3 Correlates with Lower HIV-1 Infection Risk and Declines Soon after Vaccination
Investigators demonstrated that HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G 3 (IgG3) distinguished two HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies (RV144 and VAX003 clinical trials) and correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in a blinded follow-up case-control study with the RV144 vaccine. HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses were not long-lived, which was consistent with the waning efficacy of the RV144 vaccine. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Immune Suppression by Neutrophils in HIV-1 Infection: Role of PD-L1/PD-1 Pathway
The authors showed that neutrophils in the blood of HIV-1-infected individuals express high levels of program death ligand 1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 is induced by HIV-1 virions, TLR-7/8 ligand, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and IFNα. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Reduction of the HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced ER Stress and Inflammatory Response by Raltegravir in Macrophages
Scientists examined the effect of raltegravir on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation and lipid accumulation in cultured mouse macrophages, primary mouse macrophages, and human THP-1-derived macrophages, and further determined whether the combination of raltegravir with existing HIV protease inhibitor would potentially exacerbate or prevent the previously observed activation of inflammatory response and foam cell formation. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Mucosal Dendritic Cells Shape Mucosal Immunity
The authors focus on intestinal dendritic cell (DC) subsets and their function in bridging the innate signaling and adaptive immune systems to maintain the homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. They also review the current strategies for manipulating mucosal DCs for the development of efficient mucosal vaccines to protect against infectious diseases. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

Vaccines to Prevent Leishmaniasis
The authors review the understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

Attend Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Asia Congress in Singapore
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Scientist Receives NIH Grant to Find Cure for Infectious Disease
A Clemson University scientist was awarded a two-year, $147,157 grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to find a cure for an infectious disease. Lesly Temesvari works on the stress response in the human pathogen, Entamoeba histolytica. [Clemson University] Press Release

Translating Success – Three Centers Launched to Battle Infectious Pathogens
Three five-year grants totaling up to $15 million per year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, will allow Harvard Medical School researchers to move discoveries about TB and emerging infections closer to applications in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. [Harvard Medical School] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
Alliance for Regenerative Medicine Announces Introduction of Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the Senate
The Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, the national voice for regenerative medicine, announced the introduction of the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the U.S. Senate and expressed appreciation for the efforts of its lead sponsors, Senators Barbara Boxer (D-CA) and Mark Kirk (R-IL). [Alliance for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

Fight against HIV/AIDS: Launch of Enhanced Action Plan in EU and Neighbouring Countries for 2014-2016
The European Commission put forward an Action Plan on HIV/AIDS which prolongs and extends existing EU action in this area, building on the achievements of the Action Plan 2009-2013. The new Action Plan places a greater focus on keeping HIV/AIDS high on the political agenda, tackling HIV-related stigma and discrimination and achieving better access to voluntary testing. [European Comission] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

 
EVENTS
NEW Vaccine Research Summit 2014
April 22-23, 2014
London, United Kingdom

NEW 10th European Antibody Congress 2014
November 10-12, 2014
Geneva, Switzerland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Intestinal Mucosal Immunology and Inflammation (Universität Bern)

NEW PhD Position – Virology (Hannover Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


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