Volume 2.09 | Mar 12

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.09 March 12, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Personalized Gene Therapy Locks Out HIV, Paving the Way to Control Virus without Antiretroviral Drugs
Researchers successfully genetically engineered the immune cells of 12 HIV positive patients to resist infection, and decreased the viral loads of some patients taken off antiretroviral drug therapy entirely – including one patient whose levels became undetectable. [Press release from the University of Pennsylvania discussing online prepublication in the New England Journal of Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Gut Microbiota Promote Hematopoiesis to Control Bacterial Infection
The authors reveal that germ-free mice display reduced proportions and differentiation potential of specific myeloid cell progenitors of both yolk sac and bone marrow origin. Homeostatic innate immune defects may lead to impaired early responses to pathogens. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Extracellular ATP Affects the Response of Human Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Scientists showed that extracellular ATP indirectly modulates the expression of 272 genes in human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis, and that it induces their alternative activation. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Dectin-1 Induces M1 Macrophages and Prominent Expansion of CD8+IL-17+ Cells in Pulmonary Paracoccidiodomycosis
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, has a sugar-rich cell wall mainly composed of mannans and glucans. This fact motivated researchers to use dectin-1-sufficient and deficient mice to investigate the role of β-glucan recognition in the immunity against pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Combined Adenovirus Vector and Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Protein Prime-Boost Regime Elicits T Cell and Neutralizing Antibody Immune Responses
To develop a hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine capable of inducing both T cell and antibody responses the authors constructed adenoviral vectors expressing full-length and truncated E1E2 envelope glycoproteins from HCV genotype 1b. [J Virol] Abstract

Bordetella pertussis Proteins Dominating the MHC Class II-Presented Epitope Repertoire in Human Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells
Researchers for the first time elucidated dominant MHC class II-presented B. pertussis CD4+ T cell epitopes, expressed on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells after processing of whole bacterial cells, using a platform of immunoproteomics technology. [Clin Vaccine Immunol] Abstract

HIV

An Autoreactive Antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 Individual Broadly Neutralizes HIV-1
Researchers identified an HIV-1-infected individual with SLE who exhibited controlled viral load (< 5,000 copies/ml) in the absence of controlling HLA phenotypes and developed plasma HIV-1 neutralization breadth. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Moderate Restriction of Macrophage-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by SAMHD1 in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages
Scientists showed that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 particles containing viral protein X. [PLoS One] Full Article

Innate DNA Sensing Is Impaired in HIV Patients and IFI16 Expression Correlates to Chronic Immune Activation
The authors demonstrated impaired expression of interferon-stimulated genes in responses to DNA in PBMCs from HIV positive individuals, irrespective of whether patients receive antiretroviral treatment. [Clin Exp Immunol] Abstract

Impact of HIV Co-Infection on Plasma Level of Cytokines and Chemokines of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients
Investigators analyzed ex vivo plasma samples from 17 HIV negative and 16 HIV pulmonary tuberculosis co infected cases using Luminex assay to see impact of HIV co-infection on plasma level of cytokines and chemokines of pulmonary tuberculosis patients before and after anti tuberculosis treatment. [BMC Infect Dis] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Cellular Immune Controls Over Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: New Lessons from the Clinic and the Laboratory
Epstein-Barr virus induces multiple cellular immune responses in the infected host. How these host responses work together to prevent virus pathogenicity, and how immune imbalance predisposes to disease, remain poorly understood. Here, the authors describe three ongoing lines of enquiry that are shedding new light on these issues. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

New Insights into the Crosstalk between Shigella and T Lymphocytes
The authors focus on the recent advances made in the understanding of how the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri interferes with the host adaptive response by targeting T lymphocytes, especially their migration capacities. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

GSK3β and the Control of Infectious Bacterial Diseases
This review focuses on the central role of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the regulation of pathogen-induced inflammatory responses through the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production, the extensive ongoing efforts to exploit GSK3β for its therapeutic potential in the control of infectious diseases, and the increasing evidence that specific pathogens target GSK3β-related pathways for immune evasion. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Seattle BioMed Awarded $9.8 Million Grant from the National Institutes of Health to Develop Vaccine Against HIV/AIDS
Seattle BioMed announced that it has received a seven year Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to develop a vaccine that would elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. [Seattle BioMed] Press Release

TNI BioTech, Inc. Granted Additional Patent for Methods for Inducing Sustained Immune Response of T-Cells
TNI BioTech, Inc. announced the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has granted a key patent for IRT-101 for inducing sustained immune response of T-Cells. The present invention relates to methods of stimulating and promoting a sustained natural immune system response, resulting in increased resistance and inhibition of infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, and other immunodeficiency-related ailments. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Nature Reviews Immunology poster – Immune Response to HIV. Request a copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Phacilitate Partnering for Biologic Emerging Markets 2014
May 28-29, 2014
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – AIDS Research (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

PhD Position – HIV Infection (Karolinska Institute)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – HIV (French Agency for Research on HIV and Viral Hepatitis)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)


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