Volume 2.08 | Mar 5

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.08 March 5, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Disease-Causing Bacterial Invaders Aided by Failure of Immune System Switch
Immune system defenses against dangerous bacteria in the gut can be breached by turning off a single molecular switch that governs production of the protective mucus lining our intestinal walls. [Press release from Yale University discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Early Specification of CD8+ T Lymphocyte Fates during Adaptive Immunity Revealed by Single-Cell Gene-Expression Analyses
T lymphocytes responding to microbial infection give rise to effector cells that mediate acute host defense and memory cells that provide long-lived immunity, but the fundamental question of when and how these cells arise remains unresolved. Scientists combined single-cell gene-expression analyses with ‘machine-learning’ approaches to trace the transcriptional ‘roadmap’ of individual CD8+ T lymphocytes throughout the course of an immune response in vivo. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Blimp-1 Represses CD8 T Cell Expression of PD-1 Using a Feed-Forward Transcriptional Circuit during Acute Viral Infection
Researchers showed that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1)-deficient CD8 T cells fail to repress programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) during the early stages of CD8 T cell differentiation after acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strain Armstrong. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Mapping the Innate Signaling Cascade Essential for Cytokine Storm during Influenza Virus Infection
The authors showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1P1R) agonist treatment suppresses global cytokine amplification. Importantly, S1P1R agonist treatment was able to blunt cytokine/chemokine production and innate immune cell recruitment in the lung independently of endosomal and cytosolic innate sensing pathways. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

An Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay for the Detection of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific IFNγ-producing T Cells
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes significant disease in elderly adults and the authors have previously reported that individuals 65 years of age and older have reduced RSV F-specific interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing T cells compared to healthy younger adults. To measure RSV F-specific memory T cell responses in the elderly following infection or vaccination, they optimized and qualified an IFNγ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. [Clin Vaccine Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Developmental Pathway for Potent V1V2-Directed HIV-Neutralizing Antibodies
Antibodies capable of neutralizing HIV-1 often target variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2) of the HIV-1 envelope, but the mechanism of their elicitation has been unclear. Here researchers define the developmental pathway by which such antibodies are generated and acquire the requisite molecular characteristics for neutralization. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects
Investigators hypothesized that the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. The composition of the lower GI tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. [PLoS Pathog] Abstract

Impact of HIV on CD8+ T Cell CD57 Expression Is Distinct from That of CMV and Aging
Researchers compared markers of CD8+ T cell differentiation (e.g., CD28, CD27, CCR7, CD45RA) and CD57 expression on CD28- CD8+ T cells in healthy HIV-uninfected adults with and without cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and in both untreated and antiretroviral therapy-suppressed HIV-infected adults with asymptomatic CMV infection. [PLoS One] Abstract

IL-10-Producing B Cells Are Induced Early in HIV-1 Infection and Suppress HIV-1-Specific T Cell Responses
The authors examined the role of IL-10-producing B cells in HIV-1 infection. Compared to uninfected controls, IL-10-producing B cell frequencies were elevated in both blood and sigmoid colon during the early and chronic phase of untreated HIV-1 infection. [PLoS One] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Interferon-Alpha, Immune Activation and Immune Dysfunction in Treated HIV Infection
In HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, the anti-viral effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy have the potential to contribute to eradication of HIV infection while IFN-α inhibitor therapy is under investigation for the treatment of immune activation. [Clin Transl Immunol] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Merck’s Investigational HIV Therapy, Doravirine (MK-1439), Demonstrates Antiviral Activity in Phase IIB Study of Treatment-Naïve Adults
Merck presented data from the dose-ranging portion of an ongoing Phase IIB clinical trial of doravirine, the company’s investigational next-generation, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. [Press release from Merck & Co., Inc. discussing research presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Boston] Press Release

Bristol-Myers Squibb Presents Promising Phase IIb Data for Novel, Investigational Attachment Inhibitor for HIV-1 Infected Treatment-Experienced Patients
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company presented 24-week Phase IIb data that demonstrated similar response rates for its investigational compound, BMS-663068, when compared to a boosted protease inhibitor, Reyataz® (atazanavir sulfate) with ritonavir. [Press release from Bristol-Myers Squibb Company discussing research presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), Boston] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
NIH Seeks Input on HIV Cure Research Priorities
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is asking the scientific community to weigh in on what should be the highest priority research areas related to understanding HIV persistence and investigating strategies for eradicating or controlling remaining virus despite optimal antiretroviral treatment. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

IFRC and UNAIDS Join Forces to Reach 15 Million People with HIV Treatment by 2015
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to advance efforts in scaling up access to HIV testing and treatment. The IFRC and UNAIDS will combine expertise and capacity to support the implementation of UNAIDS’ Treatment 2015 initiative and develop a community model for delivering scaled-up access to HIV treatment. [UNAIDS] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW IDWeek 2014
October 8-12, 2014
Philadelphia, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology of Infection (CNRS – Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology)

NEW Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

PhD Position – HIV Infection (Karolinska Institutet)

Faculty Position – Vaccine Immunology (Cornell University)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – HIV (French Agency for Research on HIV and Viral Hepatitis)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Assistant Professor – Viral Oncologist (University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Avian Viral Diseases (The Pirbright Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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