Volume 2.05 | Feb 12

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.05 February 12, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Caltech-Developed Method for Delivering HIV-Fighting Antibodies Proven Even More Promising
Previously, biologists demonstrated a highly effective method for delivering HIV-fighting antibodies to mice-a treatment that protected the mice from infection by a laboratory strain of HIV delivered intravenously. Now the researchers have shown that the same procedure is just as effective against a strain of HIV found in the real world, even when transmitted across mucosal surfaces. [Press release from California Institute of Technology discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Toll-Like Receptor and Inflammasome Signals Converge to Amplify the Innate Bactericidal Capacity of T Helper 1 Cells
Investigators showed that CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells could be rapidly stimulated by microbe-associated molecular patterns during active infection with Salmonella or Chlamydia. Further, maximal stimulation of Th1 cells by lipopolysaccharide did not require T-cell-intrinsic expression of toll-like receptor 4, interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), or interferon-γ receptor but instead required IL-18R, IL-33R, and adaptor protein MyD88. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

The Cytokine IL-22 Promotes Pathogen Colonization by Suppressing Related Commensal Bacteria
Scientists showed that IL-22 has a unique role during infection in that its expression suppressed the intestinal microbiota and enhanced the colonization of a pathogen. IL-22 induced the expression of antimicrobial proteins, including lipocalin-2 and calprotectin, which sequester essential metal ions from microbes. [Immunity]
| Press Release | Graphical Abstract

Humanized-BLT Mouse Model of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Infection
The authors aimed to determine whether the humanized BLT (bone marrow, liver, and thymus) mouse model generated from NOD/SCID/IL2rγ mice can be a useful model for studying Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Exhibit Impaired Candida albicans-Specific Th17 Responses
Scientists aimed to examine the relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and susceptibility to C. albicans because of the increasing interest in CD4+ T cell subset (Th17) cells and IL-17 in driving autoimmunity, and the advent of new biologics that target this pathway. [Arthritis Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article


Interleukin-7 Signaling Defects in Naive CD4+ T Cells of HIV Patients with CD4+ T Cell Deficiency on Antiretroviral Therapy Associated with T Cell Activation and Senescence
Researchers examined the relationship of defects in interleukin (IL)-7 induced naive CD4+ T-cell homeostasis with residual immune activation and CD4+ T-cell senescence in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy who exhibit persistent CD4+ T cell deficiency. [AIDS] Abstract

Direct Non-Productive HIV-1 Infection in a T-Cell Line Is Driven by Cellular Activation State and NFkappaB
Investigators used a recently described, doubly fluorescent HIV-1 latency model to dissect the role of proviral integration sites and cellular activation state on direct non-productive infections at the single cell level. Proviral integration site mapping of infected Jurkat T-cells revealed that productively and non-productively infected cells are indistinguishable in terms of genomic landmarks, surrounding epigenetic landscapes, and proviral orientation relative to host genes. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Slow Turnover of HIV-1 Receptors on Quiescent CD4+ T Cells Causes Prolonged Surface Retention of gp120 Immune Complexes In Vivo
The authors investigated the turnover of viral receptors (VRs) on peripheral quiescent CD4+ T cells (qCD4s), which are the most abundant peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. Utilizing pharmacological and immunological approaches, they found that the turnover of VRs on qCD4s is extremely slow. [PLoS One] Full Article

Fusion of Ubiquitin to HIV Gag Impairs Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Maturation and Reduces Ability to Induce Gag T Cell Responses
To develop an improved T cell vaccine for HIV scientists investigated whether fusing the ubiquitin gene to the N terminus of the HIV gag gene enhanced targeting to the proteasome resulting in better CD8 T cell responses. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Innate Immunity to Adenovirus
The authors describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and non-immune cells. Innate defense protects the host, and at the same time, represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. [Hum Gene Ther] Abstract

Structure and Function of Toll-Like Receptor 8
This review focuses on the structure of toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) and discusses the similarities and diversities of TLR-ligand interactions and signaling mechanisms. [Microbes Infect] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

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Sedia Biosciences Receives $1.0 Million NIH Grant for New HIV Diagnostic Assay
Sedia Biosciences Corporation of Portland, Oregon announced that it has received a Notice of Award granting Phase II funding of its previous Small Business Innovation Research grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The Phase II funding is to continue development and commercialization for diagnostic use of Sedia’s HIV-1 Limiting Antigen-Avidity EIA, a novel single well enzyme assay based on U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention licensed technology. [BusinessWire] Press Release

NIH Grants Working at UCF to Address HIV, TB and Schizophrenia
Finding a practical way prevent the transmission of HIV, developing a reliable way to detect tuberculosis while a patient is in the doctor’s office and understanding the complexities of schizophrenia are among the 26 research projects that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is funding at the University of Central Florida (UCF). [University of Central Florida] Press Release

$1 Million NIH Grant Funds Bacterial Infectious Disease Research
Scientists at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa have received a $1 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) over four years to study the functional genomics and interactions of bacterial species within biofilms. [University of Hawaiʻi System News] Press Release

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Judges Side with FDA on Stem Cells
The D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that culturing a patient’s stem cells for therapeutic use falls under the aegis of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA has said therapeutic stem cells should be regulated as drugs. [TheScientist] Editorial | Court Ruling

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Meeting in Quantitative Immunology
March 9-14, 2014
Grenoble, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie Klinikum rechts der Isar)

Assistant Professor – Viral Oncologist (University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Bacteriology (Karolinska Institutet)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Avian Viral Diseases (The Pirbright Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Associate – Immune Response against New and Emerging Respiratory Viruses (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Research Fellows – Quantitative Infectious Disease Methods (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

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