Volume 2.04 | Feb 5

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.04 February 5, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Immune Cells Need a Second Opinion
Bacterial urinary tract infections are a painful nuisance. A team of researchers has now decoded the way in which immune cells communicate with each other in defense against infections via the messenger tumor necrosis factor. [Press release from the University of Bonn Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Viral RNA Structural Element Alters Host Recognition of Nonself RNA
Scientists showed that pathogenic alphaviruses use secondary structural motifs within the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of their RNA to alter Ifit1 binding and function. Mutations within the 5′-UTR affecting RNA structural elements enabled restriction by or antagonism of Ifit1 in vitro and in vivo. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Intramuscular Therapeutic Vaccination Targeting HPV16 Induces T Cell Responses that Localize in Mucosal Lesions
Researchers report marked immunologic changes in the target lesion microenvironment after intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting human papillomavirus serotype 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 antigens, in subjects with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias who had modest detectable responses in circulating T lymphocytes. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Hepatitis C Virus Attenuates Interferon-Induced MHC Class I Expression and Decreases CD8+ T-Cell Effector Functions
Investigators used the hepatitis C virus cell culture system with the genotype 2a Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 strain to investigate interferon-induced expression of MHC class I and its regulatory mechanisms. [Gastroenterology] Abstract

Strain-Specific Innate Immune Signaling Pathways Determine Malaria Parasitemia Dynamics and Host Mortality
Scientists investigated mouse genome-wide transcriptional responses to infections with two strains of Plasmodium yoelii (N67 and N67C) and discovered differences in innate response pathways corresponding to strain-specific disease phenotypes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Grand Multigravidae Display a Distinct Cytokine Profile in Response to P. falciparum Infected Erythrocytes
By comparing peripheral cellular responses in primigravidae, women in their second to fourth pregnancy and grand multigravidae scientists sought to identify key components of the dysregulated immune response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to CS2-infected erythrocytes (IE) opsonised with autologous plasma or unopsonised IE, and cytokine and chemokine secretion was measured. [PLoS One] Full Article


Tyrosine Sulfation in the Second Variable Loop (V2) of HIV-1 Gp120 Stabilizes V2-V3 Interaction and Modulates Neutralization Sensitivity
Although high-definition structures of the monomeric core of the envelope glycoprotein subunit gp120 and, more recently, of a stabilized soluble gp140 trimer have been solved, fundamental aspects related to the conformation and function of the native envelope remain unresolved. Scientists showed that the conserved central region of V2 of gp120 contains sulfated tyrosines that in the CD4-unbound prefusion state mediate intramolecular interaction between V2 and the conserved base of the V3, functionally mimicking sulfated tyrosines in CCR5 and anti-coreceptor-binding-site antibodies such as 412d. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Electron Tomography of HIV-1 Infection in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue
Investigators used electron tomography to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-1-infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article | Press Release

Small Alveolar Macrophages Are Infected Preferentially by HIV and Exhibit Impaired Phagocytic Function
Scientists showed that HIV has differential effects on key alveolar macrophage (AM) physiological functions, whereby small AMs are infected preferentially by the virus, resulting in selective impairment of phagocytic function. [Mucosal Immunol] Full Article

Lifespan of Effector Memory CD4+ T Cells Determined by Replication-Incompetent Integrated HIV-1 Provirus
Researchers measured the duration of in vivo persistence by following a pool of T-cells that were “naturally” labeled with a single integrated clone of a replication-incompetent HIV-1 provirus. [AIDS]
Abstract | Press Release

The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor
Scientists showed that Pelargonium sidoides extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

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Brucella arteritis: Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Prognosis
The authors review the signs and symptoms, diagnostic approach, prognosis, and treatment of Brucella arteritis. They draw attention to the absence of consensus about the optimum therapy for vascular brucellosis, and the urgent need for additional studies and renewed scientific interest in this major pathogen. [Lancet Infect Dis] Abstract

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Price Family Foundation Funds Research Collaboration between Einstein and University of Oklahoma
When the foe is a disease-causing microbe, identifying the structure of its component proteins can greatly aid efforts to kill or disable it. Research to gain this knowledge will be bolstered by a $3 million grant from The Price Family Foundation. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine] Press Release

Elusys Completes Enrollment in Three Phase III Safety Studies of Its Anthrax Anti-Toxin, ETI-204, in Adult Volunteers
Elusys Therapeutics, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing antibody therapies to treat infectious disease, announced it has completed enrollment in three Phase III safety studies of ETI-204, an anti-toxin in development for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. [Elusys Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 3rd European CRISPR Meeting
May 14-16, 2014
Berlin, Germany

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NEW Assistant Professor – Viral Oncologist (University of Maryland School of Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Bacteriology (Karolinska Institutet)

NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Avian Viral Diseases (The Pirbright Institute)

NEW Lab Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position РEpigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Associate – Immune Response against New and Emerging Respiratory Viruses (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Research Fellows – Quantitative Infectious Disease Methods (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

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