Volume 2.03 | Jan 29

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.03 January 29, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Promising Class of Antibiotics Discovered for Treatment of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
Scientists have discovered a promising new class of antibiotics that could aid efforts to overcome drug-resistance in tuberculosis (TB), a global killer. The drugs increased survival of mice infected with TB and were effective against drug-resistant strains of TB. [Press release from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital discussing online prepublication in Nature Medicine] Press Release | Abstract
Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Adaptation of Innate Lymphoid Cells to a Micronutrient Deficiency Promotes Type 2 Barrier Immunity
The authors found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells are severely diminished in vitamin A-deficient settings, which results in compromised immunity to acute bacterial infection. [Science] Abstract

G-CSF Drives a Posttraumatic Immune Program that Protects the Host from Infection
The authors found that thermal injury to the skin induced a robust time-dependent protection of mice from a lethal Klebsiella pneumoniae pulmonary challenge. The protective response was neutrophil dependent and temporally associated with a systemic increase in neutrophils resulting from a reprioritization of hematopoiesis toward myeloid lineages. [J Immunol] Abstract

The Immune Profile Associated with Acute Allergic Asthma Accelerates Clearance of Influenza Virus
To further study influenza virus pathogenesis in allergic hosts, investigators aimed to develop and characterize murine models of asthma and influenza comorbidity to determine structural, physiological and immunological changes induced by influenza in the context of asthma. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection Reduces Regulatory T Cells in Infected Atherosclerosis Patients
Whether P.gingivalis infection is associated with regulatory T cells (Tregs) dysregulation during atherosclerosis (AS) is still unknown and the prevalence of different P.gingivalis FimA genotypes during this process is unclear. Researchers analyzed the distribution of Tregs and in P.gingivalis-infected atherosclerotic patients to reveal the relationship between P.gingivalis infection and Tregs reduction/dysfunction and to elucidate their role in periodontitis-AS interaction. [PLoS One] Full Article


Persistent HIV-1 Replication Is Associated with Lower Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Lymphatic Tissues
Researchers showed in lymph node samples obtained before and during 6 months of treatment that the tissue concentrations of five of the most frequently used antiretroviral drugs are much lower than in peripheral blood. These lower concentrations correlated with continued virus replication measured by the slower decay or increases in the follicular dendritic cell network pool of virions and with detection of viral RNA in productively infected cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Preservation of Tetherin and CD4 Counter-Activities in Circulating Vpu Alleles despite Extensive Sequence Variation within HIV-1 Infected Individuals.
Single genome analysis of vpu repertoires throughout infection in 14 individuals infected with HIV-1 clade B revealed extensive amino acid diversity of the Vpu protein. For the most part, this variation in Vpu increases over the course of infection and is associated with predicted epitopes of the individual’s MHC class I haplotype, suggesting CD8+ T cell pressure is the major driver of Vpu sequence diversity within the host. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article

HIV Nef Expression Favors the Relative Preservation of CD4+ T Regulatory Cells that Retain Some Important Suppressive Functions
Using the CD4C/HIV-1Nef transgenic mice as a model, the authors report that HIV-1 Nef causes depletion of total CD4+ T cells, but preserves and relatively enriches CD4+ regulatory T cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Immunogens Derived from an Elite Neutralizer Elicit Cross-Reactive V1V2 Antibodies and Low Potency Neutralizing Antibodies
Scientists evaluated four gp140 Envelope protein vaccine immunogens that were derived from an elite neutralizer, subject VC10042, whose plasma was able to potently neutralize a wide array of genetically distinct HIV-1 isolates. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

How HIV-1 Nef Hijacks the AP-2 Clathrin Adaptor to Downregulate CD4
The Nef protein of HIV-1 downregulates the cell surface co-receptor CD4 by hijacking the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2. The structural basis for the hijacking of AP-2 by Nef is revealed by a 2.9 Å crystal structure of Nef bound to the α and σ2 subunits of AP-2. Nef binds to AP-2 via its central loop (residues 149-179) and its core. [eLIFE] Full Article | Press Release

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Diabetes and Immunity to Tuberculosis
This review provides an update on the clinical and epidemiological features of tuberculosis in the diabetic population and relates them to recent advances in understanding the mechanistic basis of tuberculosis susceptibility and other complications of diabetes. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Leishmaniasis in Immunosuppressed Individuals
Treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis can be challenging and systemic treatment is more often indicated. With globally increased travel and access to advanced medical care in developing countries, the leishmaniasis burden in immunosuppressed individuals will probably continue to rise, warranting increased awareness and enhanced surveillance systems. [Clin Microbiol Infect] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Researchers Launch Phase I Clinical Trial of Potential MRSA Treatment
Scientists have begun the first human clinical trial of EDP-788, an investigational oral antibiotic intended to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases] Press Release

VIB Scientists Find New Strategy to Combat Bacterial Infections
Alvin Lo and Han Remaut have identified a chemical substance with the potential of acting as a new drug to treat bacterial infections, particularly urinary tract infections. In contrast to the most popular antibiotics, this candidate drug does not destroy pathogenic bacteria, but rather disarms them. [VIB] Press Release

NIH Infecting Volunteers with Flu to Discover How the Immune System Works
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is trying to close these knowledge gaps with the help of 100 healthy adults who are willing to be infected with flu. [FierceVaccines] Press Release

Sinovac Files Clinical Trial Application with CFDA for its Proprietary Vaccine against Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus
Sinovac Biotech Ltd. announced that it has submitted a Clinical Trial Application with the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to commence human clinical trials for its vaccine against Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. [Sinovac Biotech Ltd.] Press Release

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Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 16th Biennial Meeting of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies
October 29-November 1, 2014
Praque, Czech Republic

NEW 9th Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium
November 9-13, 2014
Stellenbosch, South Africa

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Associate – MicroRNA Immunobiology (The University of York)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Interleukin-12 Family Members (Université Libre de Bruxelles)

Postdoctoral Associate – Immune Response against New and Emerging Respiratory Viruses (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Position – HIV Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

Postdoctoral Research Fellows – Quantitative Infectious Disease Methods (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Regulation by Small RNAs in Bacterial Pathogens (Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH)

Postdoctoral Position – Identification of Tick Molecules that Contribute to Tick-Borne Pathogens Transmission (ANSES)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

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