Volume 2.01 | Jan 15

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.01 January 15, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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New Clues to How Bacteria Evade Antibiotics
Researchers have succeeded in visualizing persister cells in infected tissues for the first time, and have identified signals that lead to their formation. They showed that Salmonella, which causes gastroenteritis and typhoid fever, forms large numbers of non-replicating persisters after being engulfed by immune cells called macrophages. [Press release from Imperial College London discussing online prepublication in Science]
Press Release
| Abstract
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
STAT1-Cooperative DNA Binding Distinguishes Type 1 from Type 2 Interferon Signaling
To investigate the importance of STAT1-cooperative DNA binding, investigators generated gene-targeted mice expressing cooperativity-deficient STAT1 with alanine substituted for Phe77. Neither ISGF3 nor GAF bound DNA cooperatively in the STAT1F77A mouse strain, but type 1 and type 2 interferon responses were affected differently. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Human Natural Killer Cells Control Plasmodium falciparum Infection by Eliminating Infected Red Blood Cells
The authors showed that the adhesion molecule lymphocyte-associated antigen 1 is required for natural killer cell interaction with and elimination of infected red blood cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
| Press Release

Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor B1 Is Critical for Antibody-Dependent Dengue
The enhancement of dengue virus (DENV) infection is curious as cross-linking of activating Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) signals an early antiviral response by inducing the type-I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Entry through activating FcγR would thus place DENV in an intracellular environment unfavorable for enhanced replication. Researchers demonstrated that, to escape this antiviral response, antibody-opsonized DENV coligates leukocyte Ig-like receptor-B1 to inhibit FcγR signaling for ISG expression. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

T-bet Regulates Immunity to F. tularensis LVS Infection, Particularly in Lungs
Upregulation of the transcription factor T-bet is correlated with strength of protection against secondary challenge with the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis, which causes the highly infectious disease tularemia. To determine if this mediator had direct consequences in immunity to LVS, investigators examined its role in infection. [Infect Immun] Abstract


Premature Activation of the SLX4 Complex by Vpr Promotes G2/M Arrest and Escape from Innate Immune Sensing
Investigators showed that the SLX4 complex is involved in suppressing spontaneous and HIV-1-mediated induction of type 1 interferon and establishment of antiviral responses. [Cell]
| Graphical Abstract

HIV-1 Persistence in CD4+ T Cells with Stem Cell-Like Properties
Researchers showed that during suppressive antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ T memory stem cells harbor high per-cell levels of HIV-1 DNA and make increasing contributions to the total viral CD4+ T cell reservoir over time. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART
For targeted cytotoxic killing of persistent vRNA+ cells, the authors treated bone marrow-liver-thymus mice undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. They found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. [PLoS Pathog]
Full Article
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HIV-1 Triggers WAVE2 Phosphorylation in Primary CD4 T Cells and Macrophages, Mediating Arp2/3-Dependent Nuclear Migration
Scientists report that HIV-1 triggers WAVE2 phosphorylation at serine 351 through gp120 binding to the chemokine coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5 during entry. This phosphorylation event involves both Gαi-dependent and -independent pathways, and is conserved both in X4 and R5 viral infection of resting CD4 T cells and primary macrophages. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

A Parameter for IL-10 and TGF-ß Mediated Regulation of HIV-1 Specific T Cell Activation Provides Novel Information and Relates to Progression Markers
The authors explored a quantitative parameter for antigen-induced cytokine-mediated regulation of HIV-specific effector T cell activation by functional antibody-blockade of IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Emerging Roles of Immunostimulatory Oral Bacteria in Periodontitis Development
The authors review the differential roles of individual bacterial groups in promoting bone loss through the induction of host damage and immunostimulation. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

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Wistar to Launch Largest Randomized Trial Aiming for an HIV Cure by Diminishing Viral Reservoir Beyond Current Therapies
A multi-institutional research team led by Luis J. Montaner has received a four-year, $6.2 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease of the National Institutes of Health to hold a trial of a new therapeutic strategy that has shown strong signs that it can diminish the amount of persistent HIV-1 virus residing in the cells of people with HIV/AIDS. [The Wistar Institute] Press Release

Enanta Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase I Study of MRSA Infection Candidate EDP-788
Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical study of EDP-788, Enanta’s investigational compound for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections. [Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

Novavax Announces Continuation of RSV Vaccine Partnership with PATH
Novavax, Inc. announced the continuation of their partnership with PATH to develop Novavax’ respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine for maternal immunization. Under this amendment, PATH will provide Novavax approximately $3.5 million in funding to support the ongoing Phase II dose-confirmatory clinical trial in women of childbearing age, initiated in October 2013. [Novavax, Inc.] Press Release

Sanofi and Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Announce the Creation of a Natural Product Center of Excellence
Sanofi and Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft announced the creation of a natural product center of excellence to accelerate the discovery and development of new therapies to treat infectious diseases, the second leading cause of mortality worldwide accounting for 10 million deaths in 2011. [Sanofi] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn how ex vivo models drive progress in HIV research. Read the research profiles.
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Asia Congress
June 10-11, 2014
Singapore, Singapore

NEW Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Congress 2014
September 29-30, 2014
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Associate – Immune Response against New and Emerging Respiratory Viruses (University of Florida)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – HIV Research (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/National Institutes of Health)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellows – Quantitative Infectious Disease Methods (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Regulation by Small RNAs in Bacterial Pathogens (Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology-Vaccinology (University of Liège, Belgium)

Postdoctoral Position – Identification of Tick Molecules that Contribute to Tick-Borne Pathogens Transmission (ANSES)

Postdoctoral Associate – Molecular Biology (State University of New York)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

Research Associate – Molecular and Cellular Biology of African Trypanosomes (Imperial College London)

Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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