Volume 2.00 | Jan 8

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 2.00 January 8, 2014
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
iNKT Cell Production of GM-CSF Controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Researchers investigated how invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells suppress intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication. When co-cultured with infected macrophages, iNKT cell activation, as measured by CD25 upregulation and IFNγ production, was primarily driven by IL-12 and IL-18. [PLoS Pathog] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Dengue Virus Envelope Protein Domain I/II Hinge Determines Long-Lived Serotype-Specific Dengue Immunity
Scientists showed that the envelope glycoprotein domain I/II hinge of dengue virus (DENV)-3 and DENV-4 is the primary target of the long-term type-specific neutralizing antibodies response in humans. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

STING-Dependent Type I IFN Production Inhibits Cell-Mediated Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes
The authors examined the role of STING in the development of protective cell-mediated immunity to L. monocytogenes. Mice deficient for STING or its downstream effector IRF3 restricted a secondary lethal challenge with L. monocytogenes and exhibited enhanced immunity that was MyD88-independent. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

C-Type Lectin Receptors Differentially Induce Th17 Cells and Vaccine Immunity to the Endemic Mycosis of North America
Investigators showed that C-type lectin receptors exert divergent contributions to the development of antifungal Th17 cells and vaccine resistance against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Coccidioides posadasii. [J Immunol] Abstract

Virus Specific Cell-Mediated Immunity May Play a Role in Controlling Reactivated Human Herpesvirus 6B in Patients Under Measles Induced Immunosuppression
For a better understanding of the cellular immune responses to reactivated human herpesvirus 6B (HHV 6B), the lymphoproliferative response to HHV 6B antigen was measured in three consecutive specimens obtained biweekly from 22 young children and infants suffering from acute measles, and in 19 influenza patients and nine healthy control subjects. [J Med Virol] Abstract

HIV

An Altered Intestinal Mucosal Microbiome in HIV-1 Infection Is Associated with Mucosal and Systemic Immune Activation and Endotoxemia
Researchers investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic cell frequency and activation, as well as with levels of systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Reduced Markers of HIV Persistence and Restricted HIV-Specific Immune Responses after Early Antiretroviral Therapy in Children
The authors measured the markers of HIV persistence and HIV-specific immunity in early treated children. They performed a cross-sectional study that enrolled 15 children older than 2 years of age who initiated antiretroviral therapy before 6 months of age and had sustained viral suppression. [AIDS] Abstract

The Majority of CD4+ T-Cell Depletion during Acute SHIV89.6P Infection Occurs in Uninfected Cells
Investigators fit mathematical models to data from experiments testing an HIV eradication strategy in which five macaques with a proportion of CD4+ T-cells resistant to SHIV entry were challenged with SHIV89.6P, a highly pathogenic dual tropic chimeric SIV-HIV viral strain that results in rapid loss of both SHIV- susceptible and SHIV-resistant CD4+ T-cells. [J Virol] Abstract

Higher CD27+CD8+ T Cells Percentages during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Predict Greater Subsequent CD4+ T Cell Recovery in Treated HIV Infection
Scientists analyzed cellular biomarkers of immunological inflammation, maturation, and senescence in HIV-infected subjects on early suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). They performed longitudinal analyses of peripheral immunological biomarkers of subjects on suppressive ART from early treatment to 1-2 years of follow-up. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
 
REVIEWS
γδ T Cells: First Line of Defense and Beyond
The authors review advances in γδ T cell biology in the context of their being the major initial IL-17 producers in acute infection. [Annu Rev Immunol] Abstract

Host Immune Status and Response to Hepatitis E Virus Infection
This review covers the epidemiology of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection worldwide, the humoral and cellular immune responses to HEV, and the persistence and protection of antibodies produced in response to both natural infection and vaccines. [Clin Microbiol Rev] Abstract

TLR-Mediated Activation of NK Cells and Their Role in Bacterial/Viral Immune Responses in Mammals
The authors review the current knowledge concerning the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in and on natural killer (NK) cells and the responsiveness to their agonists and review the literature on the role of NK cells in the sensing of bacterial or viral patterns and in combatting infection. [Immunol cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
CytoDyn Announces FDA Approval of Patient Screening for Phase IIB Study with Lead Product Candidate PRO 140 for the Treatment of HIV Type 1
CytoDyn Inc. announced the company has received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to commence patient screening of a Phase IIb study of PRO 140, a monoclonal CCR5 antibody, for the treatment of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). [CytoDyn Inc.]
Press Release


BioCryst Receives Additional NIAID Funding to Advance Development of BCX4430 to Treat Marburg Virus Disease
BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has exercised an option to conduct the investigational new drug (IND) enabling program and to submit an IND. This option represents an additional $2.5 million to BioCryst in order to advance the development of BCX4430 as a treatment for Marburg virus disease. [BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 17th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research
April 28-30, 2014
Bethesda, United States

NEW International Cytokine and Interferon Society (ICIS) – Cytokine Down Under 2014: From Bench to Beyond
October 26-29, 2014
Melbourne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Regulation by Small RNAs in Bacterial Pathogens (Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung GmbH)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology-Vaccinology (University of Liège, Belgium)

NEW Research Associate – Translational Immunology (Genentech, Inc.)

NEW Associate Professor – B Cell Immunologist (Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine)

Research Associate – Molecular and Cellular Biology of African Trypanosomes (Imperial College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Identification of Tick Molecules that Contribute to Tick-Borne Pathogens Transmission (ANSES)

Postdoctoral Associate – Molecular Biology (State University of New York)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The Wistar Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology (University of Oxford)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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