Volume 1.40 | Dec 18

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.40 December 18, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Discovery of Immune Avoidance Mechanism Could Lead to Treatments for Deadly Mosquito-Borne Viruses
A mosquito-borne virus that kills about half of the people it infects uses a never-before-documented mechanism to “hijack” one of the cellular regulatory systems of its hosts to suppress immunity, according to scientists. [Press release from University of Pittsburgh discussing online prepublication in Nature]
| Press Release
A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Salmonella typhimurium Impedes Innate Immunity with a Mast-Cell-Suppressing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, SptP
S. typhimurium suppressed degranulation of local mast cells (MCs), resulting in limited neutrophil recruitment and restricting outflow of vascular contents into infection sites, thus facilitating bacterial spread. MC suppression was mediated by secreted effector protein (SptP), which shares structural homology with Yersinia YopH. [Immunity] Abstract | Press Release

Molecular Signatures of Antibody Responses Derived from a Systems Biology Study of Five Human Vaccines
Investigators did systems analyses of immune responses to the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines against meningococcus in healthy adults, in the broader context of published studies of vaccines against yellow fever virus and influenza virus. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Salmonella Exploits NLRP12-Dependent Innate Immune Signaling to Suppress Host Defenses during Infection
Investigators showed that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 12 (NLRP12)-deficient mice were highly resistant to S. typhimurium infection. Salmonella-infected macrophages induced NLRP12-dependent inhibition of NF-κB and ERK activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IκBα and ERK. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

The Genetic Basis of Escherichia coli Pathoadaptation to Macrophages
Investigators hypothesized that the ability of evolved bacteria to escape specific components of host innate immunity, such as phagocytosis and killing by macrophages, is a critical trait relevant in the acquisition of bacterial virulence. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article


Immunological and Virological Mechanisms of Vaccine-Mediated Protection against SIV and HIV
The authors showed that antibodies to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope are necessary and sufficient to prevent infection. Moreover, sequencing of viruses from breakthrough infections revealed selective pressure against neutralization-sensitive viruses; they identified a two-amino-acid signature that alters antigenicity and confers neutralization resistance. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce HIV-1 Latency in Non-Proliferating CD4+ T Cells
Scientists demonstrated that co-culture of resting CD4+ T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4+ T cells. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

The Impact of Unprotected T Cells in RNAi-Based Gene Therapy for HIV-AIDS
For the development of a durable gene therapy that prevents viral escape, researchers proposed to combine multiple shRNAs against highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 RNA genome. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Increased Glucose Metabolic Activity Is Associated with CD4+ T-Cell Activation and Depletion during Chronic HIV Infection
Scientists investigated the impact of HIV infection on key processes that regulate glucose uptake and metabolism in primary CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. [AIDS] Abstract

CD8+ T Cells from HLA-B*57 Elite Suppressors Effectively Suppress Replication of HIV-1 Escape Mutants
Researchers investigated the effect of escape mutations within HLA*B-57-restricted Gag epitopes on the CD8+ T cell mediated suppression of HIV-1 replication. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
NOD Proteins: Regulators of Inflammation in Health and Disease
Recent findings have expanded the scope of the cellular compartments monitored by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 and have elucidated the signaling pathways that are triggered downstream of NOD activation. In vivo, NOD1 and NOD2 have complex roles, both during bacterial infection and at homeostasis. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Pitt-Led Microbicide Trials Network Awarded $70 Million over Seven Years to Develop, Test HIV Prevention Products
With funding of $70 million to support its effort into 2021, the Microbicide Trials Network will continue to develop and test products that aim to reduce the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, federal officials announced. [University of Pittsburgh] Press Release

National Institutes of Health Names Leadership, Research Units for Restructured HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Networks
Principal investigators and clinical trials units (CTUs) have been chosen to lead and conduct the research of five HIV/AIDS clinical trials networks through 2021. Total funding for the networks’ leadership and the CTUs is expected to reach $275 million in 2014, the first year of operation. [National Institutes of Health] Press Release

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Peru Conference Infectious Diseases 2014
April 7-10, 2014
Lima, Peru

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Research Associate – Molecular and Cellular Biology of African Trypanosomes (Imperial College London)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Identification of Tick Molecules that Contribute to Tick-Borne Pathogens Transmission (ANSES)

Postdoctoral Associate – Molecular Biology (State University of New York)

Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The Wistar Institute)

Research Scientist – Veterinary Immunology (Institute of Virology and Immunology)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Anti-Viral Property of IL-27 and Related Proteins in Innate Immune Responses to HIV and Other Virus Infections (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology (University of Oxford)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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