Volume 1.38 | Dec 4

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.38 December 4, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Perivascular Macrophages Mediate Neutrophil Recruitment during Bacterial Skin Infection
Investigators report that perivascular macrophages are critical for neutrophil migration into skin infected with the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Using multiphoton intravital microscopy they showed that neutrophils extravasate from inflamed dermal venules in close proximity to perivascular macrophages, which are a major source of neutrophil chemoattractants. [Nat Immunol] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Sprouty-2 Regulates HIV-Specific T Cell Polyfunctionality
Findings indicate that increased sprouty-2 (SPRY2) expression during chronic viral infection reduces T cell polyfunctionality and identify SPRY2 as a potential target for immunotherapy. [J Clin Invest]
| Press Release

Identification of IFN-γ-Producing Innate B Cells
By challenging mice with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, vesicular stomatitis virus and Toll-like receptor ligands, the authors identified an inducible CD11ahiFcγRIIIhi B cell subpopulation that is significantly expanded and produces high levels of IFN-γ during the early stage of the immune response. [Cell Res]
Full Article

Protective CD8+ T-Cell Immunity to Human Malaria Induced by Chimpanzee Adenovirus-MVA Immunization
Researchers demonstrated that a replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus vector followed by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara booster induces exceptionally high frequency T-cell responses to the liver-stage Plasmodium falciparum malaria antigen ME-TRAP. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Helicobacter pylori Cytotoxin-Associated Gene A Impairs Human Dendritic Cell Maturation and Function through IL-10-Mediated Activation of STAT3
Scientists analyzed the effect of H. pylori infection on human dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function, focusing on the virulence factors implicated and signaling pathways involved. Their results reveal that cytotoxin-associated gene A is crucial for DC tolerization by modulating IL-10 secretion and, in turn, STAT3 phosphorylation, favoring a regulatory T cell immune response. [J Immunol] Abstract


Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies that Inhibit HIV-1 Cell to Cell Transmission
Investigators identified a subset of broadly neutralizing antibodies that inhibit both cell-free and cell-mediated infection in primary CD4+ lymphocytes. These antibodies target either the CD4-binding site or the glycan/V3 loop on HIV-1 gp120 and act at low concentrations by inhibiting multiple steps of viral cell to cell transmission. [J Exp Med] Abstract

HIV-1 Tat Clade-Specific Cytokine Induction in Monocytes/Macrophages Is Not Evidenced in Total or V[gamma]9V[delta]2 T Lymphocytes
Researchers investigated if Tat clades A-D can alter tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production by total and Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in vitro. [AIDS] Abstract

In Vivo Electroporation of Minicircle DNA as a Novel Method of Vaccine Delivery to Enhance HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses
As a novel vaccine delivery system, scientists combined in vivo electroporation and the minicircle DNA carrying codon-optimized HIV-1 gag gene to evaluate the immunogenicity of this system. They found that minicircle-gag conferred persistent and high levels of gag expression in vitro and in vivo. [J Virol] Abstract

Memory CD8+ T Cells Elicited by HIV-1 Lipopeptide Vaccines Display Similar Phenotypic Profiles but Differences in Term of Magnitude and Multifunctionality Compared with Influenza- or Epstein Barr Virus-Specific Memory T Cells in Humans
Investigators fully characterized the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses induced in volunteers vaccinated with HIV lipopeptide vaccines for phenotypic markers, tetramer staining, cytokine secretion, and cytotoxic activities. [Vaccine] Abstract

Elevated CD57 and CD95 Expressions Are Associated with Lower Numbers of CD4+ Recent Thymic Emigrants in HIV-1 Infected Immune Responders following Antiretroviral Treatment
The authors aimed understand how immune reconstitution through ART in HIV-1 infected patients affects CD4+ recent thymic emigrants (identified as CD31+ naïve T cells). They performed FACS analysis of CD4+ CD31+ naïve T cells from PBMCs in a cross-sectional age-matched cohort, including 25 healthy controls, 18 untreated HIV-1 infected viremic progressors, 10 untreated HIV-1 infected viral controllers, and 24 HIV-1 infected immune responders following ART. [Immunol Lett] Abstract
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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
TB or Not TB: That Is No Longer the Question
The authors address the key immunological question: What are the necessary and sufficient immune responses required for protection against Tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease in people-specifically protection against infection, protection against the establishment of latency or persistence, and protection against transitioning from latent infection to active disease. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Immune Surveillance and Response to JC Virus Infection and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy
The authors discuss what is known about viral persistence and the immune response to JC virus replication in immunocompromised individuals to elucidate the deficiencies in viral containment that permit viral reactivation and spread. [J Neurovirol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Targeting HIV with Radiommunotherapy
Researchers found that radioimmunotherapy was able to specifically kill highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated lymphocytes and reduce HIV infection to undetectable levels in the majority of samples. [Press release from Albert Einstein College of Medicine discussing research presented at the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

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NIH Announces Plan to Increase Funding toward a Cure for HIV/AIDS
At a White House event to mark the 25th annual World AIDS Day, President Obama announced that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) plans to redirect AIDS research funds to expand support for research directed toward a cure for HIV. [National Institutes of Health]
Press Release
| National HIV/AIDS Strategy Report

Éric A. Cohen from the IRCM to Lead a National Research Project to Cure HIV
The Canadian HIV Cure Enterprise, a collaboration of leading Canadian HIV/AIDS researchers, will undertake an innovative research program to find new effective approaches to cure HIV infection in humans. [ICRM] Press Release

Idenix Pharmaceuticals Announces Initiation of Enrollment in a Phase II All-Oral Combination Study of Samatasvir (IDX719), Simeprevir, and TMC647055 for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the initiation of patient enrollment in the Phase II HELIX-2 clinical trial evaluating an all-oral, direct-acting antiviral HCV combination regimen of samatasvir, Idenix’s once-daily pan-genotypic NS5A inhibitor, simeprevir, a once-daily NS3/4A protease inhibitor jointly developed by Janssen R&D Ireland and Medivir AB, and TMC647055, a once-daily NS5B non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor boosted with low-dose ritonavir developed by Janssen. [Idenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release
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NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: The Science of Malaria Eradication
February 2-7, 2014
Mérida, Mexico

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Immunology (The Wistar Institute)

NEW Research Scientist – Veterinary Immunology (Institute of Virology and Immunology)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Anti-Viral Property of IL-27 and Related Proteins in Innate Immune Responses to HIV and Other Virus Infections (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology (University of Oxford)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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