Volume 1.36 | Nov 30

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.36 November 20, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Macrophage and T Cell Produced IL-10 Promotes Viral Chronicity
Scientists demonstrated that although dendritic cells produce IL-10 and overall IL-10 mRNA levels decrease significantly in absence of CD11c+ cells, absence of IL-10 produced by CD11c+ cells failed to improve the Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)-specific T cell response and control of LCMV infection. [PLoS Pathog] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Genetic Regulation of Vesiculogenesis and Immunomodulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) restrains immune responses well enough to escape eradication but elicits enough immunopathology to ensure its transmission. Investigators provide evidence that this host-pathogen relationship is regulated in part by a cytosolic, membrane-associated protein with a unique structural fold, encoded by the Mtb gene rv0431. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthesis, Local Inflammation and Innate Immunity to Pathogens by BET Family Proteins
Investigators showed that infection of macrophages with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes binding of BET proteins Brd2, Brd3 and, most prominently, Brd4 to the Nos2 promoter and that a profound reduction of Nos2 expression occurred in the presence of the BET inhibitor JQ1. [Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

Changes in Immune Cell Populations in the Periphery and Liver of GBV-B-Infected and Convalescent Tamarins (Saguinus labiatus)
The authors characterized changes in lymphocyte populations in tamarins with an acute GB virus B (GBV-B) infection, a hepatitis virus of the flaviviridae. Major immune cell populations were monitored in peripheral and intra-hepatic lymphocytes at high viremia or following a period when peripheral virus was no longer detected. [ Virus Res] Abstract

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Improves Outcome in Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia: Potential Role of Regulatory T Cells
Investigators aimed to determine the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG treatment on survival and lung injury in a mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia. As increased T regulatory (Treg) cell numbers have been shown to improve outcome in experimental pneumonia, they examined the potential role of Treg cells in probiotic-mediated benefit. [Shock] Abstract


Can Non-Lytic CD8+ T Cells Drive HIV-1 Escape?
The authors have developed a 3D cellular automaton model of HIV-1 which captures spatial and temporal dynamics. The model reproduces in vivo HIV-1 dynamics at the cellular and population level. Using this model they demonstrated that non-lytic effector mechanisms can select for escape variants but that outgrowth of the variant is slower and less frequent than from a lytic response so that non-lytic responses can potentially offer more durable control. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Differential Impact of Magnitude, Polyfunctional Capacity and Specificity of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses on HIV Viral Set Point
Scientists evaluated the differential impact of magnitude, polyfunctional capacity and specificity of the CD8+ response at approximately 6 months post infection on viral set point at 12 months in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals. [J Virol] Abstract

Humanized Mice: Novel Model for Studying Mechanisms of Human Immune-Based Therapies
Scientists demonstrated that human CD8 T lymphocytes in humanized mice are fully responsive to a novel cell-based secreted heat shock protein gp96HIV-Ig vaccine. They also showed that the gp96HIV-Ig vaccine induces powerful mucosal immune responses in the rectum and the vagina, which are thought to be required for protection from HIV infection. [Immunol Res] Abstract

Cellular Interplay among Th17, Th1, and Treg Cells in HIV-1 Subtype “C” Infection
The impact of HIV-1 infection on the interplay of Th17/Th1/Treg cells in HIV-1 infected Indian individuals was examined and researchers report that HIV-1 Gag specific peripheral blood Th17 cells were significantly depleted in late infected subjects, compared to early infected subjects and slow progressors. [J Med Virol] Abstract
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Dendritic Cells in Progression and Pathology of HIV Infection
The authors discuss the multiple roles that dendritic cells play at different stages of HIV infection, emphasizing their relevance to HIV pathology and progression. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Interleukin-21 and T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV Infection: Research Focus and Future Perspectives
This review focuses on first the influence of interleukin-21 in regulation of T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell responses and its immunotherapeutic potential in viral infections and as a vaccine adjuvant. [Immunol Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Study to Identify Functions of Hypothetical Genes in Two Infectious Disease Pathogens
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has awarded the University of Chicago $4.4 million over five years to study genes of unknown function in bacteria that cause plague and brucellosis. [The University of Chicago Medical Center] Press Release

Inovio Pharmaceutical’s DNA Vaccine for the Deadly MERS Virus Induces Robust Immune Response in Preclinical Trial
Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that preclinical testing of a DNA synthetic vaccine for the virulent Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) induced robust and durable immune responses, demonstrating the potential for a SynCon® DNA vaccine to prevent and treat this deadly virus. [Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

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National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW British Society for Parasitology – Spring Meeting 2014
April 6-9, 2014
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Anti-Viral Property of IL-27 and Related Proteins in Innate Immune Responses to HIV and Other Virus Infections (Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc.)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Immuno-Biology (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology (University of Oxford)

PhD Studentship – HIV Transcriptional Latency and Activation (Erasmus MC)

Junior and Senior Research Scientists – Novel, Small Molecule HIV Drug Discovery (Sirga Advanced Biopharma, Inc.)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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