Volume 1.35 | Nov 13

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.35 November 13, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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HIV-1 Evades Innate Immune Recognition through Specific Cofactor Recruitment
Researchers showed that HIV-1 capsid mutants N74D and P90A, which are impaired for interaction with cofactors cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 and cyclophilins, respectively, cannot replicate in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages because they trigger innate sensors leading to nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF3, the production of soluble type 1 interferon and induction of an antiviral state. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
ELF4 Is Critical for Induction of Type I Interferon and the Host Antiviral Response
Scientists report that the transcription factor ELF4 is induced by type I interferon and upregulates interferon expression in a feed-forward loop. ELF4 deficiency leads to reduced interferon production, resulting in enhanced susceptibility to West Nile virus encephalitis in mice. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

JUNB/AP-1 Controls IFN-γ during Inflammatory Liver Disease
The authors analyzed the molecular function of JUNB in experimental models of hepatitis, including administration of concanavalin A (ConA) or α-galactosyl-ceramide, which induce liver inflammation and injury. Mice specifically lacking JUNB in hepatocytes displayed a mild increase in ConA-induced liver damage. However, targeted deletion of Junb in immune cells and hepatocytes protected against hepatitis in experimental models that involved NK/NKT cells. [J Clin Invest] Full Article | Press Release

Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Protein pUL83 Inhibits IFI16-Mediated DNA Sensing for Immune Evasion
Researchers provide mechanistic insight into host recognition of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and subsequent immune evasion by this prominent DNA virus. They established that the interferon-inducible protein IFI16 acts as a nuclear DNA sensor following HCMV infection, binding viral DNA and triggering expression of antiviral cytokines via the STING-TBK1-IRF3 signaling pathway. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract

Contrasting Immune Responses Mediate Campylobacter jejuni-Induced Colitis and Autoimmunity
Investigators demonstrated that interleukin-10−/− mice infected with a C. jejuni colitogenic human isolate had significantly upregulated type 1 and 17 but not type 2 cytokines in the colon coincident with infiltration of phagocytes, T cells and innate lymphoid cells. [Mucosal Immunol] Abstract

Development of Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ Regulatory T Cells Induced by Human Herpesvirus-6 Infection
Scientists characterized human herpesvirus 6 (HHV)-6-specific T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HHV-6-infected donors. Their results showed that HHV-6 infection could induce both CD4+ and CD8+ HHV-6-specific regulatory T cells. [J Virol] Abstract


Intracellular Dynamics of HIV Infection
Researchers used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-EGFP constructs and flow cytometry sorting to explore the dynamics of cell infection, viral protein production and cell death in vitro. By following the numbers of productively infected cells expressing EGFP over time, they showed that infected cell death slows down over time. [J Virol] Abstract

Chronic HIV-Infected Patients Show an Impaired Dendritic Cells Differentiation of Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells
Purified CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells obtained from bone marrow of chronic HIV-infected patients were investigated for the differentiative capability toward mature dendritic cells. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Innate Immune Responses to HIV Infection in the Central Nervous System
Investigators identified a group of genes that were differentially expressed in neuroepithelial progenitor-derived cells during virus exposure. This included genes that are strongly related to interferon-induced responses and antigen presentation. Moreover, they observed that the host factor apolipoprotein E influences the innate immune response expressed by these cells, with a more robust response in the apolipoprotein E3/E3 genotype cultures compared to the apolipoprotein E3/E4 counterparts. [Immunol Res] Abstract

LAG-3 Expression Defines a Discrete Subset of HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cells that Is Associated with Lower Viral Load
Scientists describe a new population of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (LAG-3). These LAG-3+CD8+ T cells do not display immunophenotypic patterns traditionally attributed to regulatory T cells. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract
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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
Decoding the Complexity of Type I Interferon to Treat Persistent Viral Infections
The authors highlight the diversity and temporal impact of Type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling, discuss the current therapeutic uses of IFN-I, and explore the strategy of blocking IFN-I to alleviate immune dysfunction in persistent virus infections. [Trends Microbiol] Abstract

Cryptococcus Antigens and Immune Responses: Implications for a Vaccine
The continuing AIDS epidemic coupled with the increased usage of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ transplant rejection or to treat autoimmune diseases has resulted in an increase in individuals at risk for developing cryptococcosis. This review discusses the need, challenges and potential for developing vaccines against cryptococcosis. [Expert Rev Vaccines] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

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STEMCELL Technologies Receives Government of Canada Support to Develop New Cell Isolation Technology that will Enable Advancements in the Study of the Immune Response to HIV and the Development of HIV Vaccines
STEMCELL Technologies announced that the National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program will provide up to $1.5 million in financial support for the development of cell isolation technology that will further basic and translational HIV research as well as broader research in infectious disease. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

Johns Hopkins HIV/AIDS Experts Awarded More than $5 Million in Fogarty Training Grants for India And Africa
Experts in HIV/AIDS at the Johns Hopkins University’s School of Medicine and the university’s Bloomberg School of Public Health have been awarded more than $5 million by the Fogarty International Center’s HIV Research Training Program to foster health and medical research skills in India, Uganda, Ethiopia and Malawi. [Johns Hopkins University] Press Release

Agenus’ HerpV Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Meets Primary Endpoint in Randomized Phase II Trial
Agenus Inc. announced statistically significant top-line results from its Phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center study for HerpV, a recombinant “off-the-shelf” therapeutic vaccine candidate for the treatment of patients with herpes simplex virus-2. [Agenus Inc.] Press Release

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 23rd Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research (CAHR) 2014
May 1-4, 2014
St. John’s, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Importance of Trypanosome Motility during the Early Infection in the Mammalian Host (Institut Pasteur)

Postdoctoral Position – Immuno-Biology (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre)

PhD Studentship – Systems Biology (University of Oxford)

PhD Studentship – HIV Transcriptional Latency and Activation (Erasmus MC)

Junior and Senior Research Scientists – Novel, Small Molecule HIV Drug Discovery (Sirga Advanced Biopharma, Inc.)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)br>
Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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