Volume 1.32 | Oct 23

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.32 October 23, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Antigen-Specific B-Cell Receptor Sensitizes B Cells to Infection by Influenza Virus
Through somatic cell nuclear transfer investigators generated mice that harbor B cells with a B cell receptor specific for the haemagglutinin of influenza A/WSN/33 virus. Their B cells secrete an immunoglobulin gamma 2b that neutralizes infectious virus. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release
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Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxin ED Targets the Chemokine Receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 to Kill Leukocytes and Promote Infection
The authors identified the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 as the targets of Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxin ED (LukED) on neutrophils. The LukE subunit binds neutrophils in a specific and saturable manner, and this interaction is inhibited by CXCL8, the high-affinity endogenous ligand of CXCR1 and CXCR2. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Perpetual Expression of PAMPs Necessary for Optimal Immune Control and Clearance of a Persistent Pathogen
Using the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is deficient in strong pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), researchers demonstrated a requirement for the continuous expression of PAMPs for optimal anti-pathogen immunity. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Cytomegalovirus-Seropositive Children Show Inhibition of In Vitro EBV Infection that Is Associated with CD8+CD57+ T Cell Enrichment and IFN-γ
Scientists used mononuclear cells from cord blood and from 2- and 5-year-old EBV-naive children for in vitro EBV infection. They showed that the degree of EBV-induced B cell activation and expansion differs between age groups and in particular in relationship to IFN-γ production capacity. [J Immunol] Abstract

Co-Expression of S. Typhi GroEL and IL-22 Gene Augments Immune Responses against Salmonella Infection
The immunomodulatory effect of Interleukin 22 (IL-22) as an adjuvant was studied by DNA vaccination with S. Typhi Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60/GroEL) in mice. DNA construct of IL-22 gene fused with GroEL was developed and immunization studies were carried out in mice. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract


CD36-Specific Antibodies Block Release of HIV-1 from Infected Primary Macrophages and Its Transmission to T Cells
The authors showed that upon HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages, Gag is recruited to preexisting compartments containing the scavenger receptor CD36, which then become virus-containing compartments. Silencing of CD36 in HIV-1-infected macrophages decreases the amount of virions released. [J Exp Med] Abstract

Recognition of Synthetic Glycopeptides by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Unmutated Ancestors
Researchers report that synthetic, homogeneously glycosylated peptides that bind avidly to variable loop 1/2 (V1V2) broadly neutralizing antibodies PG9 and CH01 bind minimally to strain-specific neutralizing V2 antibodies that are targeted to the same envelope polypeptide site. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
| Press Release

Regulatory T Cells Prevent Liver Fibrosis during Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in a Humanized Mouse Model
Investigators report that regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent liver immunopathogenesis during HIV-1 infection using a humanized mouse model. In the absence of Treg cells, HIV-1 infection induced liver fibrosis associated with hepatic stellate cell activation, hepatitis and liver injury. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Both HLA-B*57 and Plasma HIV RNA Levels Contribute to the HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cell Response in HIV Controllers
The authors performed an extensive study in 101 HIV controllers (HIC) to determine the impact of HLA-B*57 on the HIV-specific CD8+ response. HLA-B*57-restricted response displayed better qualitative features such as higher functional avidity, higher proliferation capacity, higher cytokine production than responses not restricted by HLA-B*57. [J Virol] Abstract

Lower HIV Provirus Levels Are Associated with More APOBEC3G Protein in Blood Resting Memory CD4+ T Lymphocytes of Controllers In Vivo
Provirus levels in resting memory cells that can serve as latent reservoirs of HIV in blood were compared between controllers and antiretroviral therapy-suppressed non-controllers. APOBEC3G, a cellular factor that blocks provirus formation at multiple steps if not antagonized by HIV virion infectivity factor, was also studied. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

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Engineering Synthetic Vaccines Using Cues from Natural Immunity
The authors describe recent advances in the design of synthetic materials to direct immune responses, highlighting successes and challenges in prophylactic, therapeutic and tolerance-inducing vaccines. [Nat Mater] Abstract

Human T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cells and Disease
Traditionally Tfh cells have been identified by their anatomical location in secondary lymphoid tissues, which has hindered the study of these cells in humans as access to these tissues is often not feasible. However, recent studies have identified the circulating counterparts to tissue Tfh cells and with this has come a wealth of knowledge gained from the study of these cells in human disease. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

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Merck Receives Breakthrough Therapy Designation for MK-5172/MK-8742, an Investigational Oral Combination Regimen for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
Merck announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted MK-5172/MK-8742 Breakthrough Therapy designation for treatment of chronic HCV infection. [Merck & Co., Inc.] Press Release

AMRIC Scientist Leads Studies on Infectious Disease Prevention at HSN
The Advanced Medical Research Institute of Canada (AMRIC) and Health Sciences North/Horizon Santé-Nord (HSN) announced they are working on two separate studies to develop improved methods of detecting and treating C. difficile and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and prevent their spread in a hospital setting. [Health Sciences North] Press Release

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Opens HIV-Vaccine Lab in South Africa
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center will celebrate the grand opening of a state-of-the-art HIV vaccine laboratory in Cape Town, South Africa. The lab is part of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, which is headquartered at Fred Hutch in Seattle and is the world’s largest network dedicated to testing vaccine candidates for the prevention of HIV. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center] Press Release

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NEW Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2014
March 3-6, 2013
Boston, United States

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NEW PhD Studentship – HIV Transcriptional Latency and Activation (Erasmus MC)

NEW Junior and Senior Research Scientists – Novel, Small Molecule HIV Drug Discovery (Sirga Advanced Biopharma, Inc.)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Faculty Position – Basic Research in Infectious Diseases (Harvard Medical School & Boston Children’s Hospital)

Research Fellow – HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders (University of Texas Medical Branch)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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