Volume 1.31 | Oct 16

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.31 October 16, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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MX2 Is an Interferon-Induced Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infection
By comparing gene expression profiles in cell lines that differ in their ability to support the inhibitory action of interferon (IFN)-α at early steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle, researchers identified myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an interferon-induced inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. [Nature] Abstract
Hassle-Free PBMC Isolation in Just 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (<Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Wnt6 Is Expressed in Granulomatous Lesions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Mice and Is Involved in Macrophage Differentiation and Proliferation
Investigators showed that Wnt6 is expressed in granulomatous lesions in the lung of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. They identified foamy macrophage-like cells as the primary source of Wnt6 in the infected lung and uncovered a TLR-MyD88-NF-κB-dependent mode of induction in bone marrow-derived macrophages. [J Immunol] Abstract

In Vitro Infection of Bovine Monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis Delays Apoptosis and Suppresses Production of IFN-γ and TNF-α but Not IL-10
Researchers showed that infection of bovine blood monocytes with M. bovis delays spontaneous or TNF-α/staurosporine-driven apoptosis activates NF-κβ p65 sub-unit and inhibits caspase-9 activity. [Infect Immun] Abstract

Serum-Dependent Enhancement of Coxsackievirus B4-Induced Production of IFNα, IL-6 and TNFα by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Scientists determined if Coxsackievirus B4 and human serum have the ability to activate inflammatory cytokines in addition to IFNα in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures. [J Mol Biol] Abstract

Identification of Leptospira interrogans Phospholipase C as a Novel Virulence Factor Responsible for Intracellular Free Calcium Ion Elevation during Macrophage Death
The authors demonstrated that L. interrogans infection induced intracellular free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i elevation through extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release cause macrophage apoptosis and necrosis, and the LB361 gene product was shown to be a novel phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C of L. interrogans responsible for the [Ca2+]i elevation. [PLoS One] Full Article

Decreased Expression of Toll Like Receptor Signaling Molecules in Chronic HBV Infected Patients
Researchers examined expression levels of toll like receptor (TLR) signaling molecules (IRAK1, IRAK4, TRAF3 and IRF7) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and IL-6 in chronic HBV infected patients. [Hum Immunol] Abstract


The NK Receptor NKp30 Mediates Direct Fungal Recognition and Killing and Is Diminished in NK Cells from HIV-Infected Patients
The authors determined that NKp30 is responsible for recognition and killing of the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus and Candida. NKp30 was required for natural killer (NK) cell-fungal conjugate formation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, and perforin release. [Cell Host Microbe] Full Article

Efficiency of Cell-Free and Cell-Associated Virus in Mucosal Transmission of HIV-1/SIV
Scientists describe a novel ex vivo model system that utilizes sealed human colonic mucosa explants and demonstrated both in the ex vivo model and in vivo using the rectal challenge model in rhesus monkeys that HIV-1-infected lymphocytes can transmit infection across the mucosa more efficiently than cell-free virus. [J Virol] Abstract

Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy Assessment of HIV Immunotherapy in a Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase Ib Human Trial
Investigators describe a Phase Ib trial of HIV-v, a synthetic immunotherapy that elicits T- and B-cell effector responses against HIV infected cells. Fifty-nine combination antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected males aged 18-50 years with viral load of 5000-500,000copies/ml and CD4 counts >350/μl were recruited for this multi-centre, randomized, double blind study. [Vaccine] Abstract

Recovery of Interleukin-17 Production from Interleukin-15-Stimulated CD4+ Mononuclear Cells in HIV-1-Infected Patients with Sustained Viral Suppression
Researchers studied the effect of interleukin (IL)-15 stimulation in vitro on IL-17 production from CD4+ mononuclear cells of HIV-infected patients. They observed that IL-15 triggers, in a dose-dependent manner, IL-17 secretion. [J Interferon Cytokine Res] Abstract

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Novel Anti-HIV Therapeutics Targeting Chemokine Receptors and Actin Regulatory Pathways
This review describes the study of HIV interactions with actin cytoskeleton. It also examines potential pharmacological targets that emerge from this interaction. [Immunol Rev] Abstract

HIV Trafficking in Host Cells: Motors Wanted!
The authors review recent literature on the transport of HIV components in the cell, provide evidence for the identity and role of molecular motors in this process, and highlight how these trafficking events may be related to those occurring with other viruses. [Trends Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

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GeoVax DNA/MVA Vaccine Elicits Sustained Antibody Responses to HIV
GeoVax Labs, Inc. presented additional results from HVTN 205, a multicenter, randomized Phase IIa trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the company’s first generation preventive HIV vaccine. At 6 months post-vaccination, patient antibody levels had declined less than three-fold, indicating significant durability of the antibody response. [Press release from GeoVax Labs, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2013 AIDS Vaccine Meeting, Barcelona] Press Release

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The Galien Awards Committee Elects National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. as 2013 Pro Bono Humanum Honoree
The Galien Awards Committee announced that Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health, has been selected to receive the 2013 Pro Bono Humanum Award at the seventh annual Prix Galien USA Awards. [PR Newswire Association LLC]
Press Release

Insmed Completes Enrollment of Phase II Clinical Trial of ARIKACE to Treat Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Lung Disease in U.S. and Canada
Insmed Incorporated announced that the company has completed patient enrollment in its Phase II clinical study of ARIKACE®, or liposomal amikacin for inhalation, for patients with recalcitrant nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in the U.S. and Canada. [Insmed Incorporated] Press Release

UTHealth’s Cesar Arias Earns Infectious Diseases Award
Cesar Arias, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Medical School, was bestowed the Oswald Avery Award for Early Achievement from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Arias’ research is focused on stemming the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as superbugs, which are considered one of the major health threats of the 21st Century. [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston]
Press Release

New Funding for Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Nanoparticle Technology
The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation will give a little over SEK 16 million to the development of new, highly-efficient mucosal vaccines. Professor Nils Lycke at MIVAC at the Sahlgrenska Academy will in cooperation with researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and Lund University, combine technologies to develop the next generation of effective mucosal vaccines based on immunomodulation and cell-targeted nanoparticles. [University of Gothenburg] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW International Symposium On HIV And Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID) Congress
May 21-23, 2013
Marseille, France

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Women’s Infectious Disease Research (Washington University School of Medicine)

Faculty Position – Basic Research in Infectious Diseases (Harvard Medical School & Boston Children’s Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Molecular Virology (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Positions – HIV Research/Virology (University Hospital Frankfurt)

Research Fellow – HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders (University of Texas Medical Branch)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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