Volume 1.30 | Oct 9

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.30 October 9, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Influenza A Exacerbates Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia by Attenuating IL-1β Production in Mice
The authors examined whether IL-1β signaling is required for S. aureus host defense and whether influenza infection impacted S. aureus-induced IL-1β production and subsequent Type 17 pathway activation. [J Immunol] Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Exogenous OX40 Stimulation during Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection Impairs Follicular Th Cell Differentiation and Diverts CD4 T Cells into the Effector Lineage by Upregulating Blimp-1
Scientists recently demonstrated that the TNFR family costimulatory molecule OX40 is critically required to sustain antiviral T cell and Ab responses that enable control of viral replication in the context of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Here, they investigated whether reinforcing OX40 stimulation through an agonist Ab had the potential to prevent LCMV persistence. [J Immunol] Abstract

Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Protein CX3C Motif Impairs Human Airway Epithelial and Immune Cell Responses
Scientists used an in vitro model of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection comprised of human PBMCs separated by a permeable membrane from human airway epithelial cells infected with RSV with either an intact CX3C motif or a mutated motif. They showed that the CX4C induces higher levels of type I/III IFN in A549 cells, increased IFN-α and TNF-α production by human pDC and monocytes, and increased IFN-γ production in effector/memory T cell subpopulations. [J Virol] Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus Alpha Toxin Suppresses Effective Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses in a Murine Dermonecrosis Model
Alpha toxin (AT), an essential virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections, has been reported to damage tissue integrity; however its effect on the immune response has not been investigated. Investigators demonstrated that infection with USA300 AT isogenic mutant, or passive immunization with an AT neutralizing mAb, 2A3, 24 hours prior to infection with wild type USA300, resulted in dermonecrotic lesion size reduction, and robust neutrophil infiltration. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Fibronectin-Binding Motif within FlpA Facilitates Campylobacter jejuni Adherence to Host Cell and Activation of Host Cell Signaling
Researchers examined FlpA, a C. jejuni fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein composed of three FNIII-like repeats D1, D2 and D3, to identify the interactions required for cellular adherence on pathogen-induced host cell signaling. In vivo experiments revealed that FlpA is necessary for C. jejuni disease based on bacterial dissemination to the spleen of IL-10−/− germ-free mice. [Emerging Microbes & Infections] Full Article


Kinetics of Myeloid Dendritic Cell Trafficking and Activation: Impact on Progressive, Nonprogressive and Controlled SIV Infections
Researchers assessed the role of myeloid dendritic cells in the outcome of SIV infection by comparing and contrasting their frequency, mobilization, phenotype, cytokine production and apoptosis in pathogenic, nonpathogenic and controlled SIVagmSab infection. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

Coadministration of Polyinosinic:Polycytidylic Acid and Immunostimulatory Complexes Modifies Antigen Processing in Dendritic Cell Subsets and Enhances HIV Gag-Specific T Cell Immunity
Scientists assessed the effect of combining two adjuvants with distinct mechanisms of action on their ability to prime T cells: the TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, and immunostimulatory complexes. Each adjuvant was administered alone or together with HIV Gag protein (Gag), and the magnitude, quality, and phenotype of Gag-specific T cell responses were assessed. [J Immunol] Abstract

Restricted 5′-End Gap Repair of HIV-1 Integration Due to Limited Cellular dNTP Concentrations in Primary Human Macrophages
The authors investigated the efficiency of gap repair at integration sites in different HIV-1 target cell types. They found that the general gap repair machinery in macrophages was attenuated as compared to dividing CD4+ T cells.They also tested whether the poor dNTP availability found in macrophages is responsible for the delayed HIV-1 proviral DNA integration in this cell type, since the KM value of Pol β is much higher than the dNTP concentrations found in macrophages. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

The Role of HIV and Monocytes/Macrophages in Adipose Tissue Biology
To assess the role of HIV and monocytes/macrophages in adipose tissue dysregulation. HIV DNA in circulating monocyte subsets was quantitated by real-time PCR. Biopsied subcutaneous fat was examined for macrophage content by CD68 staining. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Effect of Hepatitis C Infection on HIV-Induced Apoptosis
Investigators studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and CD19+ B cell apoptosis in 104 HIV-positive patients (56 were also Hepatitis C virus [HCV]-positive) and in 22 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. They also analyzed HCV/HIV coinfection in a Daudi B-cell line expressing CD4 and susceptible to both HCV and HIV infection. [PLoS One] Full Article

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
Microbiota-Mediated Colonization Resistance against Intestinal Pathogens
The authors discuss how immune- mediated colonization resistance against antibiotic-resistant intestinal pathogens is influenced by the composition of the commensal microbiota. [Nat Rev Immunol] Abstract

The Role of Acetylation in TLR4-Mediated Innate Immune Responses
Recent studies focusing on the post-translational modification of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways have begun expanding the knowledge of the impact of lysine acetylation on TLR4 signaling cascades. The authors focus on the potential roles of acetylation in TLR4-mediated innate immune responses. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Characteristics of Human Infection with Avian Influenza Viruses and Development of New Antiviral Agents
The review summarizes the recent progress in research on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of avian influenza viruses. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Liver Fibrosis Linked to Immune Activation in HIV/HCV Co-Infected Women
Andrea Kovacs from the Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles presented findings from an analysis looking at associations between HIV and hepatitis C status, liver fibrosis biomarkers and immune activation. [Press release from NAM Publications discussing research presented at the IDWeek 2013 conference, San Francisco] Press Release | Conference Abstract

GSK’s Vaccine Candidate Containing Agenus’ QS-21 Stimulon® Reduces Malaria Infection in Phase III Trials of Over 15,000 Children
Agenus Inc. announced that new Phase III data for GlaxoSmithKline’s (GSK’s) RTS,S malaria vaccine candidate, which contains Agenus’ QS-21 Stimulon® adjuvant, were presented. For the first time, the efficacy of the vaccine candidate was assessed at each trial site separately, which are in regions with different levels of malaria disease. Efficacy was found to be statistically significant at all sites in young children and at four sites in infants. [Press release from Agenus Inc. discussing research presented at the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Pan African Conference, Durban] Press Release

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HIV Vaccines Elicit Immune Response in Infants
A new analysis of two HIV vaccine trials that involved pediatric patients shows that the investigational vaccines stimulated a critical immune response in infants born to HIV-infected mothers, researchers report. [EurekAlert!] Press Release

LSUHSC Awarded $3 Million Grant to Study Effect of HIV-Related Changes to Oral Bacteria
Dr. Paul Fidel, the Carl Baldridge Professor and Associate Dean for Research at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) New Orleans’ School of Dentistry, is the lead principal investigator of a $2.76 million grant from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research over five years to study how HIV and antiretroviral therapy may change communities of bacteria in the mouth and what effects those changes may have on oral infections in HIV disease. [EurekAlert!] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 24th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID)
May 10-13, 2014
Barcelona, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Faculty Position – Basic Research in Infectious Diseases (Harvard Medical School & Boston Children’s Hospital)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Molecular Virology (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Positions – HIV Research/Virology (University Hospital Frankfurt)

Research Fellow – HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders (University of Texas Medical Branch)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst – Media (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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