Volume 1.28 | Sep 25

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.28 September 25, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
‘Performance-Enhancing’ Boost Helps to Fight Infection
Researchers have found that even our immune system is subject to performance enhancement, giving immune cells the boost they need to ensure the best team is selected to fight infections. Studying a type of immune cell called killer T cells, they showed how the body identified which cells were the most capable of fighting a particular infection. [Press release from Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research discussing the online prepublication in Nature Immunology] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Cellular Immune Correlates of Protection against Symptomatic Pandemic Influenza
Researchers followed 342 healthy adults through the UK pandemic waves and correlated the responses of pre-existing T cells to the pH1N1 virus and conserved core protein epitopes with clinical outcomes after incident pH1N1 infection. Higher frequencies of pre-existing T cells to conserved CD8 epitopes were found in individuals who developed less severe illness, with total symptom score having the strongest inverse correlation with the frequency of interferon-γ+ interleukin-2 CD8+ T cells. [Nat Med] Abstract

Generation of Effector Memory T Cell-Based Mucosal and Systemic Immunity with Pulmonary Nanoparticle Vaccination
Many pathogens infiltrate the body and initiate infection via mucosal surfaces. Hence, eliciting cellular immune responses at mucosal portals of entry is of great interest for vaccine development against mucosal pathogens. The authors describe a pulmonary vaccination strategy combining Toll-like receptor agonists with antigen-carrying lipid nanocapsules, which elicit high-frequency, long-lived, antigen-specific effector memory T cell responses at multiple mucosal sites. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

RelA and RelB Cross-Talk and Function in Epstein-Barr Virus Transformed B-Cells
Scientists determined the respective roles of RelA and RelB NF-κB subunits in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-cells. Using different EBV-immortalized B-cell models, they showed that only RelA activation increased both survival and cell growth. [Leukemia] Abstract

Defining CD8+ T Cell Determinants during Human Viral Infection in Populations of Asian Ethnicity
The authors evaluated the ability of NetMHCpan to predict antiviral CD8+ T cell epitopes that they identified with a traditional approach in patients of Asian ethnicity infected with Dengue virus, hepatitis B virus, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. [J Immunol] Abstract

IL-12-Based Vaccination Therapy Reverses Liver-Induced Systemic Tolerance in a Mouse Model of Hepatitis B Virus Carrier
Using a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-carrier mouse model, investigators report that IL-12-based vaccination therapy can efficiently reverse systemic tolerance toward HBV. HBV-carrier mice lost responsiveness to hepatitis B surface Ag vaccination, and IL-12 alone could not reverse this liver-induced immune tolerance. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV

An HIV-1 Replication Pathway Utilizing Reverse Transcript Products that Fail to Integrate
Researchers found that infection of cytokine treated resting CD4+ T cells in the presence of raltegravir or with Integrase active site mutant HIV-1 yields de novo virus production following subsequent T cell activation. [J Virol] Abstract | Press Release

Immune Adaptor ADAP in T Cells Regulates HIV-1 Transcription and Cell-Cell Viral Spread via Different Co-Receptors
The authors showed that adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein (ADAP) and its binding to SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa) regulate HIV-1 infection via two distinct mechanisms and co-receptors. siRNA down-regulation of ADAP, or expression of a mutant that is defective in associating to its binding partner SLP-76, inhibited the propagation of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) in T-cell lines and primary human T-cells. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Drug-Induced Reactivation of Apoptosis Abrogates HIV-1 Infection
Scientists studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon
Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. [Viruses] Abstract | Press Release

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
 
REVIEWS
Toll-Like Receptors’ Pathway Disturbances Are Associated with Increased Susceptibility to Infections in Humans
In humans, genetic defects have been identified that impair signaling of the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway and this may result in recurrent pyogenic infections, as well as virus and fungi infections. In this review, the authors discuss the main mechanisms of microbial recognition and the defects involving TLRs. [Arch Immunol Ther Exp] Abstract

IL-17 Cytokines in Immunity and Inflammation
The authors summarize the recent findings in IL-17 biology and the progress towards understanding the regulatory mechanisms of IL-17 expression and signaling mechanisms. This knowledge will benefit the development of novel immune modulators that enhance immunity to various infections and reduce inflammatory damage in infected patients. [Emerging Microbes & Infections] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Janssen R&D Ireland Announces Agreement with PATH for Early Development of Rilpivirine in Long-Acting Formulation for Potential Prophylactic Intervention
Janssen R&D Ireland announced it has signed a license agreement with PATH for the early development of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) medicine rilpivirine in a long-acting injection as potential pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

UMB, MedImmune Form Partnership to Advance Biomedical Science and Innovation
MedImmune and the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB) have entered into a five-year, $6 million collaboration to drive novel bioscience research in Maryland. The research projects will focus on MedImmune’s core therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular and metabolic disease; oncology; respiratory, inflammation and autoimmunity; and infectious disease. [University of Maryland] Press Release

NIH-Funded Pandemic Preparation: Baylor Investigates Bird Flu Vaccine
Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, along with seven other Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units, will take part in studies to test vaccines to protect against the possibility of a bird flu pandemic. Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the study being conducted at Baylor will recruit up to 1,000 adults nationally who are 19 to 64 years old and in good health. [Baylor College of Medicine] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn how ex vivo models drive progress in HIV research. Read the research profiles.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 17th ICASA Conference 2013
December 7-11, 2013
Cape Town, South Africa

NEW First International Symposium on Human Vector-Borne Diseases
December 12-13, 2013
Hawaii, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Positions – HIV Research/Virology (University Hospital Frankfurt)

Research Fellow – HIV-Associated Neurological Disorders (University of Texas Medical Branch)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Emory University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst – Media (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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