Volume 1.26 | Sep 11

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.26 September 11, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Recognize a Fungal Glycosphingolipid that Can Induce Airway Hyperreactivity
Although Aspergillus fumigatus is recognized by multiple microbial pattern-recognition receptors, researchers found that an A. fumigatus-derived glycosphingolipid, asperamide B, directly activates invariant natural killer T cells in vitro in a CD1d-restricted, MyD88-independent and dectin-1-independent fashion. [Nat Med]
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Human Herpesvirus 6A Infection and Immunopathogenesis in Humanized Rag2−/−γc−/− Mice
Investigators showed that Rag2−/−γc−/− mice humanized with cord blood-derived human hematopoietic stem cells produce human T cells that express the major HHV-6A receptor, CD46. Both cell-associated and cell-free viral transmission of HHV-6A into the peritoneal cavity resulted in detectable viral DNA in at least one of the samples analyzed in nearly all engrafted mice. [J Virol] Abstract

Hepatitis C Virus Induces IL-1β/IL-18 in Circulatory and Resident Liver Macrophages
Scientists examined induction of interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-18 secretion following hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Their results demonstrated that monocyte derived human macrophages incubated with cell culture grown HCV enhance the secretion of IL-1β/IL-18 in culture supernatants. [J Virol] Abstract

Optimal Conditions Required for Influenza A Infection-Enhanced Cross-Priming of CD8+ T Cells Specific to Cell-Associated Antigens
Researchers have recently shown that influenza A virus (IAV) infection of allogeneic cells lead to enhanced cross-priming of TCD8+ specific to cellular antigens. To develop this into a potential vaccine strategy, here, they have systematically investigated the numbers of allogeneic cells infected by IAV, IAV doses and their infectious activity, the length of in vitro infection and other associated factors. [Immunol Cell Biol] Abstract

Molecular Characterization of T Cell Receptor Beta Variable in the Peripheral Blood T Cell Repertoire in Subjects with Active Tuberculosis or Latent Tuberculosis Infection
In 42 subjects with active tuberculosis or latent tuberculosis infection, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and their subsets were separated and sorted. The molecular profiles of the T cell receptor beta variable complementarity determining region 3 in the three cell populations were investigated using their recently developed gene melting spectral pattern assay. [BMC Infect Dis] Full Article


Immune Clearance of Highly Pathogenic SIV Infection
The authors recently reported that approximately 50% of rhesus macaques vaccinated with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV/SIV) vectors manifest durable, aviremic control of infection with the highly pathogenic strain SIVmac239. Here they showed that regardless of the route of challenge, RhCMV/SIV vector-elicited immune responses control SIVmac239 after demonstrable lymphatic and hematogenous viral dissemination, and that replication-competent SIV persists in several sites for weeks to months. [Nature] Abstract

HIV-1 gp120 Induced Expansion of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Is Dependent on Interleukin-6 and Suppresses Immunity
The authors investigated the role of myeloid derived suppressor cells during HIV-1 infection. PBMCs were cultured with gp120, infectious or inactivated HIV-1 with or without anti-IL-6 antibody. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Higher NK Cell Interferon Gamma Production Is Associated with Delayed HIV Disease Progression in LTNPs
Scientists examined the function of natural killer (NK) cells in Chinese patients who were HIV-infected but treatment-naïve. These individuals include primary HIV-infected patients, typical progressors, and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). [J Clin Immunol] Abstract

HIV-1 Induces the First Signal to Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Monocyte-Derived Macrophages
Investigators evaluated whether HIV-1 can induce activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Human primary monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with HIV-1 in the absence or presence of classical NLRP3 inflammasome activators, and IL-1β release was assessed by ELISA. [Intervirology] Abstract

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How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
Important Roles Played by TGF-β in Hepatitis B Infection
Recent findings confirm that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) directly alters hepatocyte function during hepatitis B, hence, the aim of this review is to address the current data regarding the association and status of TGF-β with hepatitis B infection and its related disorders including hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis of the liver. [J Med Virol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Stomach Bacteria Switch Off Human Immune Defenses to Cause Disease
Researchers from the University of Nottingham have showed Helicobacter pylori is able to suppress the body’s normal production of human beta defensin 1, an antimicrobial factor present in the stomach lining that helps prevent bacterial infection. [Society for General Microbiology] Press Release

Immunovaccine Reports Positive Results from Two Anthrax Studies
Immunovaccine Inc. announced positive results from anthrax challenge studies in rabbits and non-human primates using its DepoVax™ delivery system. The studies showed that all animals administered a vaccine containing recombinant protective antigen formulated in DepoVax were protected against a lethal anthrax challenge. [Immunovaccine Inc.] Press Release

XBiotech Announces It Is Developing Therapy for MRSA
XBiotech announced that it has completed discovery and has begun pre-clinical development of a new True Human™ antibody therapy for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The new antibody therapy is expected to be effective at neutralizing drug resistant staphylococcus infection by circumventing key immune evasion strategies of the bacteria, thereby facilitating natural clearance of the bacteria by the patient’s own immune system. [XBiotech USA, Inc.] Press Release

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Sequester Cuts May Delay Drug Approvals – And More
The United States Congress’s current mandatory budget cuts-sequestration-threaten unprecedented opportunities in all biomedical research and development. These severe cuts raise the particular concern that translation of intricate knowledge about the molecular biology of cancer to new, targeted treatments will be impeded in part by an underfunded U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Sci Transl Med] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: HIV Pathogenesis – Virus vs Host
March 9-14, 2013
Banff, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunology (Emory University)

Bioinformatics Position – Transcriptional Signatures of Vaccine Immunity in Humans (Emory Vaccine Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

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