Volume 1.25 | Sep 4

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.25 September 4, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TB and Parkinson’s Disease Linked by Unique Protein
A protein at the center of Parkinson’s disease research now also has been found to play a key role in causing the destruction of bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). The protein, named Parkin, already is the focus of intense investigation in Parkinson’s disease, in which its malfunction is associated with a loss of nerve cells. The authors now report that Parkin also acts on TB, triggering destruction of the bacteria by immune cells known as macrophages. [Press release from Newswise Inc. discussing online prepublication in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract
Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Preservation of Dendritic Cell Function during Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Reflects Both Intrinsic and Acquired Mechanisms of Resistance to Suppression of Host Gene Expression by Viral M Protein
The mechanisms of dendritic cell (DC) resistance to M protein and their subsequent maturation were addressed. Flt3L-derived murine bone marrow dendritic cells, which phenotypically resemble resident splenic DC, continued to synthesize cellular proteins and matured during single cycle and multi-cycle infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. [J Virol] Abstract

Hydrodynamic Immunization Leads to Poor CD8 T-Cell Expansion, Low Frequency of Memory Cytotonic T Lymphocytes and Ineffective Antiviral Protection
Scientists compared the induction of CD8 T cells by two different DNA immunization methods for T-cell differentiation, function, memory programming and their distribution within relevant tissues in a highly controlled fashion. They used hydrodynamic tail vein injection of plasmid to establish liver-specific LCMV-gp antigen transient expression, and studied CD8 T cells induced using the P14 transgenic mouse model. [Cancer Gene Ther] Full Article

Characterization of Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Function in Patients Infected with Leishmania braziliensis
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients may experience impaired Treg function, causing excessive Th1 responses and tissue damage. To address this hypothesis, the authors characterized the function of circulating Tregs in L. braziliensis infected CL patients and compared them to Tregs from uninfected controls and sub-clinical subjects. [Hum Immunol] Abstract

Chitinase 3-Like 1 Regulates Cellular and Tissue Responses via IL-13 Receptor α2
Investigators demonstrated that chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3l1) binds to interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and that Chi3l1, IL-13Rα2, and IL-13 are in a multimeric complex. They also showed that Chi3l1 activates macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/AKT, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling and regulates oxidant injury, apoptosis, pyroptosis, inflammasome activation, antibacterial responses, melanoma metastasis, and TGF-β1 production via IL-13Rα2-dependent mechanisms. [Cell Rep]
Full Article
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Unique Characteristics of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 in Bcl-2-Transduced Primary Resting CD4+ T Cells
The authors evaluated the potency and kinetics of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a primary cell model of HIV-1 latency that involves resting CD4+ T cells. [J Antimicrob Chemother] Abstract

Synthetic Glycopolypeptides as Potential Inhibitory Agents for Dendritic Cells and HIV-1 Trafficking
The binding kinetics of synthetic glycopolypeptides to the dendritic cell lectin DC-SIGN and their inhibition potential for DC-SIGN interactions with the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 were investigated. [Macromol Rapid Commun] Abstract | Press Release

Immuno-Regulatory T Cells May Be Involved in Preserving CD4 T Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Long Term Non-Progressors and Controllers
HIV-infected controllers control viral replication and maintain normal CD4 T cell counts. Long Term Non-Progressors (LTNP) also maintain normal CD4 T cell counts, but have on-going viral replication. Researchers hypothesized that immuno-regulatory mechanisms are involved in preserved CD4 T cell counts in controllers and LTNP. [J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr] Abstract

Role of P-Glycoprotein in the Efflux of Raltegravir from Human Intestinal Cells and CD4+ T-Cells as an Interaction Target for Anti-HIV Agents
Transepithelial raltegravir transport was examined using renal LLC-PK1 cells stably transfected with P-glycoprotein. Transepithelial transport of raltegravir in Caco-2 cell monolayers, and intracellular accumulation of raltegravir in the MT-2 and MT-4 (CD4+ T-) cells were measured in the presence or absence of anti-HIV agents. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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Generating Protective Immunity against Genital Herpes
The authors outline recent studies that improve the understanding of host responses against herpes simplex virus infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Obstacles to Ideal Anti-HIV Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Responses
This review addresses the potential of a two-pronged attack, where latently infected cells are induced to express HIV antigens and then eliminated by natural killer cells via an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism, with the goal of inducing a cure. [Vaccine] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.

Attend World Vaccine Congress 2013 in Lille, France
Menomune® Is the First Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccine Prequalified by the WHO
Sanofi Pasteur announced that one of its quadrivalent vaccines to prevent invasive meningococcal disease has been prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prequalification procedure accepts Menomune® vaccine for purchase by United Nations Agencies. [Sanofi Pasteur SA] Press Release

No Adverse Effects in Volunteers following Phase I Clinical Trial of Sumagen AIDS Vaccine
Sumagen Canada Inc and Western University announced that the Phase I Clinical Trial of the first and only preventative HIV vaccine based on a genetically modified killed whole virus has been successfully completed with no adverse effects in all patients. [Western University] Press Release

UofL Accepting Patients in Study of Vaccine Designed to Prevent Bacterial Infection
The University of Louisville (UofL) has been selected as a study site for a clinical trial researching a vaccine to prevent infection from a bacterium that primarily affects older patients in hospitals or long-term care facilities who also have taken broad-spectrum antibiotics. [University of Louisville] Press Release

Stem Cell Agency Awards More than $40 Million in New Research Grants
The agency’s governing Board the Independent Citizens Oversight Committee approved $40 million in funding for researchers at 10 institutions including Stanford, UCLA, UC San Diego, Human BioMolecular Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, The Gladstone Institutes, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, The Salk Institute, Numerate, Inc. and UC Irvine as part of its Early Translational IV Research awards. [California Institute for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

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NEW Gordon Research Conference: Biology of Acute Respiratory Infection
February 23-28, 2014
Lucca, Italy

NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Molecular Cell Biology of Macrophages in Human Diseases
February 9-14, 2014
Santa Fe, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Bioinformatics Position – Transcriptional Signatures of Vaccine Immunity in Humans (Emory Vaccine Center)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection (MGH – Harvard Medical School)

Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Scientist – Immunologist / Molecular Biologist (Colorado State University)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Tenure-Track Position – Cell Biologist (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

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