Volume 1.24 | Aug 28

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.24 August 28, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Bacteria Make Us Feel Pain… and Suppress Our Immune Response
The pain of invasive skin infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and possibly other serious, painful infections, appear to be induced by the invading bacteria themselves, and not by the body’s immune response as previously thought, report scientists. What’s more, their research demonstrated that once the pain neurons “sense” the bacteria, they suppress the immune system, potentially helping the bacteria become more virulent. [Press release from Boston Children’s Hospital discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Full Article
Isolate Mouse Cells In As Little As 15 Minutes
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Immunotherapy of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Antibodies against Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1)
Blockade of PD-1 signaling improves in vitro proliferation of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T lymphocytes, but whether antiviral function can be restored in infected individuals is unknown. To address this question, chimpanzees with persistent HCV infection were treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Parasite Infections in Multiple Sclerosis Modulate Immune Responses through a Retinoic Acid-Dependent Pathway
Researchers evaluated the role of TLR2 and retinoic acid (RA) in parasite-driven protection in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. RA serum levels were significantly higher in helminth-infected MS patients than in uninfected MS subjects or healthy controls. [J Immunol] Abstract

Human Dendritic Cells Transfected with a Human Papilloma Virus-18 Construct Display Decreased Mobility and Upregulated Cytokine Production
The authors examined the response of human dendritic cells transfected with a construct containing the human papilloma virus-18 genome and their subsequent expression of papilloma virus proteins. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

HBcAg-Specific IL-21 Producing-CD4+T Cells Are Associated with Relative Viral Control in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Researchers investigated the role of interleukin (IL)-21-producing CD4+T cell response in viral control of hepatitis B virus infection. HBcAg -specific interleukin-21-producing CD4+T cells in blood were detected in patients with hepatitis B virus infection. [Scand J Immunol] Abstract


IL-7 Modulates In Vitro and In Vivo Human Memory T Regulatory Cell Functions through the CD39/ATP Axis
The authors provide evidence that IL-7 exerts a synergistic effect through downmodulation of the ectoenzyme CD39, which converts ATP to ADP/AMP, and an increase in ATP receptor P2X7. Both effects lead to an increase in the ATP-mediated effect, tipping the balance to favor Th17 conversion. Using an IL-7 therapeutic study, they showed that IL-7 exerts the same effects in vitro and in vivo in HIV-infected individuals. [J Immunol] Abstract

Gag-Dependent Enrichment of HIV-1 RNA near the Uropod Membrane of Polarized T Cells
Using live-cell fluorescent microscopy, the authors demonstrated that full-length HIV-1 RNA is enriched at the uropod membrane; furthermore, the presence of HIV-1 Gag containing a functional nucleocapsid domain is necessary for this HIV-1 RNA enrichment. [J Virol] Abstract

Effects of Cellular Activation on Anti-HIV-1 Restriction Factor Expression Profile in Primary Cells
Scientists hypothesized that cellular activation modulates host restriction and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. They measured the gene expression of 34 antiviral factors in healthy PBMC. [J Virol] Abstract

Priming with Recombinant Auxotrophic BCG Expressing HIV-1 Gag, RT and Gp120 and Boosting with Recombinant MVA Induces a Robust T Cell Response in Mice
The recombinant BCG vaccines tested in this study were able to prime the immune system for a boost with rMVA expressing matching antigens, inducing robust, HIV-specific T cell responses to both dominant and subdominant epitopes in the individual proteins when used as individual vaccines or in a mix. [PLoS One]
Full Article

Harnessing the CRISPR/Cas9 System to Disrupt Latent HIV-1 Provirus
Researchers showed the potential of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the HIV-1 genome and block its expression. When LTR-targeting CRISPR/Cas9 components were transfected into HIV-1 LTR expression-dormant and -inducible T cells, a significant loss of LTR-driven expression was observed after stimulation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Majority of HIV-1 DNA in Circulating CD4+ T Lymphocytes Is Present in Non-Gut Homing Resting Memory CD4+ T Cells
Memory CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood that express integrins α4ß7 preferentially recirculate through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a proposed site of significant HIV-1 replication. Tregs and activated CD4+ T cells in GALT could also be particularly susceptible to infection. Scientists therefore hypothesized that infection of these subsets of memory CD4+ T cells may contribute disproportionately to the HIV-1 reservoir. [AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses] Abstract

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
Antiviral Memory Phenotype T Cells in Unexposed Adults
The authors discuss the issue of T-cell receptor genes cross-reactivity in the development of memory phenotype CD4+ T cells and the implications for pathogen-specific responses. they review both the human and mouse data and discuss the therapeutic implications of these findings in the contexts of infection and vaccination. [Immunol Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
Sanofi Pasteur’s Fluzone High-Dose Vaccine Significantly More Effective than Standard Dose Fluzone Vaccine in Preventing Influenza in Adults 65 Years of Age and Older
Sanofi Pasteur announced topline results of a large-scale, multi-center efficacy trial in people 65 years of age and older showing a superior clinical benefit of Fluzone® High-Dose (Influenza Virus Vaccine) relative to the standard dose of Fluzone vaccine in preventing influenza. [Sanofi Pasteur SA] Press Release

Pioneering HIV Work Produces a ‘Big Surprise’
HIV viruses inside the body regulate a key genetic process to change how much virus is produced at any given time – possibly to avoid attacks from the immune system, new research from the University of Virginia (UVA) School of Medicine suggests. The findings show such promise that the National Institutes of Health’s Institute of General Medicine Sciences has awarded the UVA researchers a four-year, $1.2 million grant to explore the implications. [University of Virginia Health System] Press Release

Seattle BioMed Awarded $16.6 Million Tuberculosis Grant From National Institutes of Health
Seattle BioMed has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, that will take a comprehensive systems approach to the problem of tuberculosis infection, harnessing the power of technology and systems biology to examine the progression from latent infection to disease. [Newswise, Inc] Press Release

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NEW Cold Spring Harbor Asia Conference: Bacterial Infection and Host Defense
November 18-22, 2013
Suzhou, China

NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: Pathogenesis of Respiratory Viruses
January 19-24, 2014
Keystone, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Residency in Infectious Diseases (University of Florida)

Research Scientist – Immunologist / Molecular Biologist (Colorado State University)

Professor of Immunology – Centre for Infection and Immunity (Queen’s University Belfast)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Tenure-Track Position – Cell Biologist (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

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