Volume 1.23 | Aug 21

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.23 August 21, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Is an Innate Immune Sensor of HIV and Other Retroviruses
Researchers showed that HIV infection activates cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase to produce cGAMP, which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines. Inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase, but not integrase, abrogated interferon-β induction by the virus, suggesting that the reverse transcribed HIV DNA triggers the innate immune response. [Science] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Mediated Increase in Glucose Availability Sustains Chronic Brucella abortus Infection in Alternatively Activated Macrophages
Investigators showed that the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus survives and replicates preferentially in alternatively activated macrophages, which are more abundant during chronic infection. [Cell Host Microbe] Abstract | Press Release

Neutralizing Antibodies against Previously Encountered Influenza Virus Strains Increase Over Time: A Longitudinal Analysis
Although it is known that immunological memory developed against previously encountered influenza A virus strains affects the outcome of subsequent infections, exactly how sequential exposures to antigenically variant viruses shape the humoral immune response in humans remains poorly understood. To address this important question, researchers performed a longitudinal analysis of antibody titers against various pandemic and seasonal strains of influenza virus spanning a 20-year period with samples from 40 individuals obtained from the Framingham Heart Study. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract

Superantigens Are Critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infective Endocarditis, Sepsis, and Acute Kidney Injury
The authors investigated the role of superantigens (SAgs) in the development of lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections. SAgs cause toxic shock syndrome, but it is unclear if SAgs contribute to infective endocarditis and kidney infections secondary to sepsis. [mBio] Full Article | Press Release

Persistence of the Bacterial Pathogen Granulibacter bethesdensis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease Monocytes and Macrophages Lacking a Functional NADPH Oxidase
The authors examined phagocytic killing by primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Cells from both normal and chronic granulomatous disease subjects internalized G. bethesdensis similarly. G. bethesdensis stimulated superoxide production in normal monocytes, but to a lesser degree than in normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. [J Immunol] Abstract

Differential Lung NK Cell Responses in Avian Influenza Virus Infected Chickens Correlate with Pathogenicity
Since natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to play an important role in influenza-specific immunity, scientists hypothesized that NK cells are involved in this difference in pathogenicity. To investigate this, the role of chicken NK-cells in low pathogenicity avian influenza virus infection was studied. [Sci Rep] Full Article

HIV

HIV Latency and Integration Site Placement in Five Cell-Based Models
Researchers compared data from five different in vitro models of latency based on primary human T cells or a T cell line. Cells were infected in vitro and separated into fractions containing proviruses that were either expressed or silent/inducible, and integration site populations sequenced from each. [Retrovirology]
Abstract
| Full Article

Gag-Positive Reservoir Cells Are Susceptible to HIV-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Mediated Clearance
Scientists examined if superinfected resting CD4+T cells from elite controllers (EC) express HIV Gag without producing infectious virus and the susceptibility of these cells to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. They found that resting CD4+T cells expressed HIV Gag and were cleared by autologous CD8+T cells from EC. [PLoS One] Full Article

The Potential Role of CD16+ Vγ2Vδ2 T Cell-Mediated ADCC in Control of HIV-1 Disease
Investigators found that although CD16+ Vγ2Vδ2 (Vδ2) T cell subset hardly participated in phosphoantigen responses dominated by CD16- Vδ2 T cell subset, the potency of ADCC function of Vδ2 T cells was correlated with the frequency of CD16+ subset. [AIDS Res Hum Retrovir] Abstract

Production of Human Antibodies by In Vitro Immunization Using a Fusion Protein Containing the Transcriptional Transactivator of HIV-1
The authors investigated whether the transcriptional transactivator of human immunodeficiency virus, which possesses numerous biological activities, is able to trigger antibody secretion when incubated with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [J Immunol Methods] Abstract

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REVIEWS
The Role of Chemokines in Acute and Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
In this review, the roles of chemokines in acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection are described with a particular emphasis placed on chemokine modulation as a means of immune subversion. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

Establishment and Molecular Mechanisms of HIV-1 Latency in T Cells
The reason for plasma viral load rapid rebound is the presence of a long-lived reservoir of latent HIV-1 proviruses that can be reactivated in resting memory T cells. Attempts to eliminate these proviruses have thus far not been successful and this long-lived latent reservoir is therefore considered a major obstacle toward a cure for HIV-1. [Curr Opin Virol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
FDA Approves Vaccines for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it has approved the 2012-2013 influenza vaccine formulation for all six manufacturers licensed to produce and distribute the vaccines in the United States. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration] Press Release

Award to Fund University of Florida’s Researcher’s Work in Vaccine Safety
John Goulding, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the department of pathology, immunology and laboratory medicine at the University of Florida received the prestigious Thomas H. Maren Junior Investigators Postdoctoral Award to fund his research. [University of Florida] Press Release

CDC Awards Funding to Help States Face New Infectious Disease Threats
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced an award to states of about $75.8 million through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases Cooperative Agreement. This funding helps states and communities strengthen core epidemiology and laboratory capacity needed to track and respond quickly to a variety of infectious diseases. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]
Press Release


$11.9 Million Grant Expands Women’s HIV Study to Southeast
The National Institutes of Health has awarded a five-year grant of $11.9 million to researchers at Emory University to study the HIV epidemic among women as part of a recent expansion of the Women’s Interagency HIV Cohort Study. [Emory University] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology: HIV Vaccines – Adaptive Immunity and Beyond
March 9-14, 2014
Banff, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Staff Scientist – HIV Clinical Trials (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

NEW Research Scientist – Immunologist / Molecular Biologist (Colorado State University)

Professor of Immunology – Centre for Infection and Immunity (Queen’s University Belfast)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Tenure-Track Position – Cell Biologist (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)


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