Volume 1.22 | Aug 14

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.22 August 14, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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Protection against Malaria by Intravenous Immunization with a Nonreplicating Sporozoite Vaccine
Researchers report that the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) vaccine was safe and well-tolerated when administered four to six times intravenously (IV) to 40 adults. PfSPZ-specific antibody and T cell responses were dose-dependent. These data indicate that there is a dose-dependent immunological threshold for establishing high-level protection against malaria that can be achieved by IV administration of a vaccine that is safe and meets regulatory standards. [Science] Abstract | Press Release
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Notch2-Dependent Classical Dendritic Cells Orchestrate Intestinal Immunity to Attaching-and-Effacing Bacterial Pathogens
Scientists used genetic techniques to deplete mice of specific subsets of classical dendritic cells and analyzed immunity to the attaching-and-effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. [Nat Immunol] Abstract

CD8 T Cell Exhaustion in Human Visceral Leishmaniasis
To better understand the role of CD8 T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis, the authors examined molecules associated with anergy and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenic aspirates, and in CD8 cells derived from these tissues. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Lung Tissues from Fatal Cases of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)
Researchers investigated viral load, the immune response, and apoptosis in lung tissues from 50 fatal cases with 2009 pH1N1 virus infection. The results suggested that 7 of the 27 cytokines/chemokines showed remarkably high expression, including IL-1 receptor antagonist protein, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, and interferon-inducible protein-10 in lung tissues of 2009 pH1N1 fatal cases. [Am J Pathol] Abstract

TNF-α Acts as an Immunoregulator in the Mouse Brain by Reducing the Incidence of Severe Disease Following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection
The authors’ findings provide the first evidence that TNF-α has an immunoregulatory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system during Japanese encephalitis virus infection and consequently protects the animals from fatal disease. [PLoS One] Full Article

CD8low T-Cell Subpopulation Is Increased in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Peripheral blood samples of 47 chronic hepatitis B patients and 19 healthy controls were collected and tested for the frequency and phenotype of CD8+ T cells with down-regulated CD8 expression (CD8low T cells). [Mol Immunol] Abstract


Clinical Impact of Altered T-Cell Homeostasis in Treated HIV Patients Enrolled in a Large Canadian Observational Cohort
Scientists investigated the probability of transitioning in or out of the CD3+ T-cell homeostatic range during antiretroviral therapy, and they assessed the clinical impact of lost T-cell homeostasis on AIDS-defining illnesses or death. [AIDS] Abstract

B Cells from Knock-In Mice Expressing Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibody b12 Carry an Innocuous B Cell Receptor Responsive to HIV Vaccine Candidates
To generate small animal models to test vaccine candidates, scientists generated targeted transgenic (knock-in) mice expressing, in the physiological Ig H and L chain loci, two well-studied broadly neutralizing antibodies: 4E10, which interacts with the membrane proximal external region of gp41, and b12, which binds to the CD4 binding site on gp120. [J Immunol] Abstract

Discordance in CD4+T-Cell Levels and Viral Loads with Co-Occurrence of Elevated Peripheral TNF-α and IL-4 in Newly Diagnosed HIV-TB Co-Infected Cases
Researchers aimed to collect the baseline information pertaining to the immune status of HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients and correlate the same with CD4+T cell levels and viral loads at the time of diagnosis prior to any drug therapy. [PLoS One] Full Article

IL-4 and IL-13 Mediated Down-Regulation of CD8 Expression Levels Can Dampen Anti-Viral CD8+ T Cell Avidity Following HIV-1 Recombinant Pox Viral Vaccination
The authors have previously shown that mucosal HIV-1 recombinant pox viral vaccination can induce high, avidity HIV-specific CD8+ T cells with reduced interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 expression compared to, systemic vaccine delivery. In this study, they investigated how these cytokines act to regulate anti-viral CD8+ T cell avidity following HIV-1 recombinant pox viral prime-boost vaccination. [Vaccine] Abstract

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Free Nature Reviews Immunology Poster: The Immune Response to HIV
The Immunopathogenesis of the HIV Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
The authors review the risk factors associated with tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS), the challenges in studying this syndrome, and how T lymphocytes, dysregulated cytokine responses, and innate immunity may contribute to the development of TB-IRIS. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
ViiV Healthcare Announces U.S. Approval of Tivicay® (Dolutegravir) for the Treatment of HIV-1
ViiV Healthcare announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Tivicay® 50-mg tablets. Tivicay is an integrase inhibitor indicated for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 in adults and children aged 12 years and older weighing at least 40 kg. [GlaxoSmithKline plc]
Press Release

NanoViricides Announces that DengueCide™ Has Received Orphan Drug Designation From the US FDA
NanoViricides, Inc. announced that DengueCide™, its drug candidate for the treatment of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, has been officially designated as an orphan drug by the US FDA. [NanoViricides, Inc.]
Press Release

Alere Receives FDA Approval for Alere Determine™ HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo
Alere Inc. announced that it has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of its pre-market application to market Alere Determine™ HIV 1/2 Ag/Ab Combo in the United States for the detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1/HIV-2. [PR Newswire Association LLC] Press Release

GE, University of Washington to Develop “Diagnostics-on-Demand” Medical Device for Infectious Disease Detection
Scientists at GE Global Research, the technology development arm of the General Electric Co., are working with a team based at the University of Washington to develop a new medical device, the size of a pack of playing cards, that can detect infectious disease by way of a simple nasal swab, in less than an hour. [Business Wire] Press Release | Video
Attend World Vaccine Congress 2013 in Lille, France
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)

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NEW 9th International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases (ISPPD)
March 9-13, 2014
Hyderabad, India

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
NEW Professor of Immunology – Centre for Infection and Immunity (Queen’s University Belfast)

NEW Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Tenure-Track Position – Cell Biologist (McGill University)

Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)

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