Volume 1.21 | Aug 7

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.21 August 7, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Completion of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Genetically Humanized Mice
Researchers demonstrated that transgenic mice stably expressing human CD81 and OCLN also support hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry, but innate and adaptive immune responses restrict HCV infection in vivo. [Nature] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Kinetic Differences in the Induction of Interferon Stimulated Genes by Interferon-α and IL28B Are Altered by Infection with Hepatitis C virus
By analyzing the transcriptomes of primary human hepatocytes treated with interferon (IFN)-α or interleukin (IL)28B, researchers sought to identify functional differences between IFN-α and IL28B to better understand the roles of these cytokines in the innate immune response. [Hepatology] Abstract

Increased Frequency of Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells during Active Tuberculosis and following Recent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Suppresses T Cell Function
The authors analyzed surface markers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in peripheral blood and at the site of disease in tuberculosis cases and in lung cancer patients, as well as in peripheral blood of asymptomatic TST(+) individuals with recent (household) or remote exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in uninfected healthy controls. [Am J Respir Crit Care Med] Abstract

Protection against Tuberculosis with Homologous or Heterologous Protein/Vector Vaccine Approaches Is Not Dependent on CD8+ T Cells
Scientists hypothesized that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses with a heterologous prime/boost vaccine approach could induce long-lived vaccine efficacy against M. tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. They produced an adenovirus vector expressing ID93 for induction of CD8 T cells to use with their candidate tuberculosis vaccine, ID93/glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion, which induces potent Th1 CD4 T cells. [J Immunol] Abstract

The Interaction of Influenza H5N1 Viral Hemagglutinin with Sialic Acid Receptors Leads to the Activation of Human γδ T Cells
The authors investigated the molecular mechanisms of γδ T cells in response to influenza H5N1 viral infection. They found that recombinant hemagglutinin derived from three different strains of influenza H5N1 viruses elicited the activation of γδ T cells cultured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. [Cell Mol Immunol] Abstract

HIV

Organization and Regulation of Intracellular Plasma Membrane-Connected HIV-1 Assembly Compartments in Macrophages
Researchers used amphipathic membrane dyes to reveal the complex 3D structure of Intracellular Plasma Membrane-connected Compartments (IPMCs) in whole monocyte-derived macrophages and to visualize connections between IPMCs and the cell surface. [BMC Biol] Abstract | Full Article

Programmed Death-1 Is a Marker for Abnormal Distribution of Naive/Memory T Cell Subsets in HIV-1 Infection
Investigators showed that programmed death (PD)-1 is upregulated on all T cell subsets, including naive, central memory, and transitional memory T cells in HIV-1-infected subjects. PD-1 is expressed at similar levels on most CD4+ T cells during the acute and the chronic phase of disease and identifies cells that have recently entered the cell cycle. [J Immunol] Abstract

Preferential HIV Infection of CCR6+ Th17 Cells Is Associated with Higher Virus Receptor Expression and Lack of CCR5 Ligands
To investigate the differential effects of HIV infection on Th17 and Th1 cells, a culture system was used in which CCR6+ CD4+ T cells were sorted from healthy human peripheral blood and activated in the presence of IL-1β and IL-23 to drive expansion of Th17 cells, while maintaining Th1 cells. [J Virol] Abstract

High Glucose Enhances HIV Entry into T Cells through Upregulation of CXCR4
Scientists hypothesized that hyperglycemia has the potential to increase HIV infection by enhancing its entry into immune cells. The effect of high glucose on HIV entry into T cells (Jurkat cells and PBMCs) and the mechanisms involved were investigated. [J Leukoc Biol] Abstract

Boosters of a Therapeutic HIV-1 Vaccine Induce Divergent T Cell Responses Related to Regulatory Mechanisms
Researchers evaluated the effects of Vacc-4x boosters on T cell immunity and immune regulation seven years after primary immunization. Twenty-five patients on effective antiretroviral therapy received two Vacc-4x doses four weeks apart and were followed for 16 weeks. [Vaccine] Full Article

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REVIEWS
Novel Approaches and Challenges to Treatment of CNS Viral Infections
Existing and emerging viral CNS infections are major sources of human morbidity and mortality. A promising new area of research involves therapies based on enhanced understanding of host antiviral immune responses. [Ann Neurol] Abstract

Tissue Dendritic Cells as Portals for HIV Entry
This review surveys the various dendritc cells (DCs) subsets found within the human sexual mucosa and their interactions with HIV. Mechanisms of HIV uptake are discussed as well as how the virus then traffics through the DC and is transferred to T cells. [Rev Med Virol] Abstract

The Interplay between HPV and Host Immunity in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
This review summarizes the literature concerning the adaptive immune response against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in the context of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, with a focus on the T-cell response. [Int J Cancer] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Targeting the Immune System to Cure HIV
A National Institutes of Health grant will allow Monash University biomedical scientist Dr Di Yu to contribute to the search for a HIV cure. Dr Yu was awarded a Creative and Novel Ideas in HIV Research grant at the world’s largest open scientific conference on HIV/AIDS held last month in Malaysia – the 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. [Monash University] Press Release

URI Researchers Awarded $11.4 Million Grant to Continue Study of Mosquito-Borne Illness
University of Rhode Island (URI) Research Professor Alan Rothman and colleagues in the Institute for Immunology and Informatics have been awarded $11.4 million from the National Institutes of Health for ongoing research on dengue virus, a potentially deadly mosquito-borne disease. Field studies for the project will be conducted by collaborators in Thailand and the Philippines who will look at natural dengue virus transmission in humans. This research will also include collaboration with a phase III vaccine trial. [University of Rhode Island] Press Release

Former Pfizer/Wyeth Global Infectious Disease Pharmaceutical Executive, Lewis Barrett, Appointed Senior Vice President, Commercial Strategy of Synthetic Biologics, Inc.
Synthetic Biologics, Inc. announced that Lewis Barrett joined the Company as its Senior Vice President, Commercial Strategy. Mr. Barrett brings his expertise in the development, commercialization and launch of infectious disease product candidates to the Synthetic Biologics’ team. [PR Newswire Association LLC]
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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells
January 12-16, 2013
Snowbird, United States

NEW Banff Conference on Infectious Diseases (BCID) 2014
June 4-8, 2014
Banff, Canada

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Tenure-Track Position – Cell Biologist (McGill University)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – AIDS Vaccine and Human Gene Therapy (GeneCure Biotechnologies)

Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


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