Volume 1.20 | Jul 31

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.20 July 31, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
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TOP STORY
Mount Sinai Researchers Identify Vulnerabilities of the Deadly Ebola Virus
Researchers studied how Ebola viruses evade the immune system, and discovered that a viral protein called VP35 is critical to deactivating the immune system. They found that when VP35 interacts with an important cellular protein called PACT, it blocks PACT from activating the immune system, allowing the virus to spread. [Press release from Mount Sinai Hospital discussing online prepublication in Cell Host & Microbe]
Press Release
| Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Ibrutinib Is an Irreversible Molecular Inhibitor of ITK Driving a Th1 Selective Pressure in T-Lymphocytes
Using ibrutinib clinical trial samples along with well-characterized neoplastic (chronic lymphocytic leukemia), parasitic infection (Leishmania major), and infectious disease (Listeria monocytogenes) models, researchers established ibrutinib as a clinically relevant and physiologically potent interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK) inhibitor with broad therapeutic utility. [Blood] Abstract

Anticancer Compound ABT-263 Accelerates Apoptosis in Virus-Infected Cells and Imbalances Cytokine Production and Lowers Survival Rates of Infected Mice
ABT-263 and its structural analogues ABT-199 and ABT-737 inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2, BCL2L1 long isoform and BCL2L2 proteins and promote cancer cell death. Investigators showed that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, these small molecules accelerate the deaths of non-cancerous cells infected with influenza A virus or other viruses. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

IFN-γ Production by CD27+ NK Cells Exacerbates Listeria monocytogenes Infection in Mice by Inhibiting Granulocyte Mobilization
The authors demonstrated that during lethal infection by L. monocytogenes, activation of natural killer (NK) cells via the costimulatory molecule CD27 leads to excessive IFN-γ production. [Eur J Immunol]
Abstract
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Neuroimmunomodulation in Human Autoimmune Liver Disease
Researchers examined the distribution of intrahepatic NPY, SP immunoreactive nerve fibers and their antomical relationship with immunocells containing tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor κB in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. [Cell Tissue Res] Abstract

Self-Adjuvanting Influenza Candidate Vaccine Presenting Epitopes for Cell-Mediated Immunity on a Proteinaceous Multivalent Nanoplatform
Scientists exploited the features of a virus-like particle, adenoviral dodecahedron, for engineering a multivalent vaccination platform carrying influenza epitopes for cell-mediated immunity. [Vaccine] Abstract

HIV

Induction of IL-17 and Nonclassical T-Cell Activation by HIV-Tat Protein
The authors found HIV-Tat protein and IL-17-expressing mononuclear cells in the brain of an individual with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Tat was also present in the CSF of individuals virologically controlled on antiretroviral therapy. Hence, they examined if Tat protein could directly activate T cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Dysregulated Tim-3 Expression on Natural Killer Cells Is Associated with Increased Galectin-9 Levels in HIV-1 Infection
Scientists analyzed Tim-3 and Gal-9 expression in a cohort of 85 individuals with early and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in 13 HIV-1 seronegative control subjects. HIV-1 infection was associated with reduced expression of Tim-3 on natural killer cells, which was normalized by HAART. [Retrovirology]
Abstract
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Mucosal Th17 Cell Function Is Altered during HIV Infection and Is an Independent Predictor of Systemic Immune Activation
HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 depletion, microbial translocation, and immune activation. Therefore, researchers assessed the function of blood and sigmoid Th17 cells during both early and chronic HIV infection, as well as the impact of short- and long-term antiretroviral therapy. [J Immunol] Abstract

Emergence of a Distinct HIV-Specific IL-10-Producing CD8+ T-Cell Subset with Immunomodulatory Functions during Chronic HIV-1 Infection
Analysis of IL-10 production at the single cell level in 51 chronically infected subjects showed that a subset of CD8+ T cells with a CD25neg FoxP3neg phenotype contributes substantially to IL-10 production in response to HIV-1 gag stimulation. [Eur J Immunol] Abstract

Cycloviolacin O2 (CyO2) Suppresses Productive Infection and Augments the Antiviral Efficacy of Nelfinavir in HIV-1 Infected Monocytic Cells
Researchers evaluated the potentially therapeutic effects of CyO2 on cell viability, membrane disruption, p24 production, and proviral integration in U1 cells; a monocytic cell model of HIV-1 latency and reactivation. [Biopolymers] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Development of Prophylactic Vaccines against HIV-1
The focus of most current HIV-1 vaccine development is on antibody-based approaches. This is because certain antibody responses correlated with protection from HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 phase III trial, and because a series of potent and broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies have been isolated from infected individuals. The authors review recent progress in the field and highlight the challenges implicit in HIV-1 vaccine design and some potential solutions. [Retrovirology] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Creates Institute for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases
Three Centers of Excellence at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School – the Public Health Research Institute, the Center for Immunity and Inflammation and the Center for Emerging Pathogens – will combine to form a new institute to pursue novel approaches to detect, treat and prevent a wide range of current and emerging diseases caused by infectious agents and harmful inflammation. [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey] Press Release

IntelligentMDx Receives FDA Clearance for IMDx VanR for Abbott m2000 Assay
IntelligentMDx announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared its automated molecular diagnostic test that detects the presence of vanA and vanB genes that can be associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. This is one of the tests in IMDx’s portfolio of infectious disease products to be cleared by the FDA for use on Abbott’s fully automated m2000 platform. [IntelligentMDx]
Press Release


Aethlon Medical Announces European Patent to Remove Viruses from Blood
Aethlon Medical, Inc. announced that the European Patent Office has provided the Company with a Decision To Grant A Patent entitled “METHOD OF REMOVAL OF VIRUSES FROM BLOOD BY LECTIN AFFINITY HEMODIALYSIS”. The Hemopurifier® is a first-in-class medical device that targets the rapid elimination infectious viral pathogens from blood. [Aethlon Medical, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW IBC’s 24th Annual Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics
December 8-10, 2013
Huntington Beach, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Research Scientist – Virus-Host Interaction (Heinrich Pette Institute)

PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


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