Volume 1.19 | Jul 24

Immunology of Infectious Disease News 1.19 July 24, 2013
Immunology of Infectious Disease News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Depletion Leads to Autoimmune Hepatitis
Investigators showed that mice with medullary thymic epithelial cell depletion due to conditional deletion of Traf6 expression in murine thymic epithelial cells (Traf6ΔTEC mice) showed a surprisingly narrow spectrum of autoimmunity affecting the liver. The liver inflammation in Traf6ΔTEC mice exhibited all the histological and immunological characteristics of human autoimmune hepatitis. [J Clin Invest]
Abstract
| Press Release
How Ex Vivo Models Drive Progress in HIV Research: Read the Research Profiles
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
HLA Targeting Efficiency Correlates with Human T-Cell Response Magnitude and with Mortality from Influenza A Infection
T-cell responses to A/H1N1 (2009) were measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from a household cohort study performed during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Scientists found that HLA targeting efficiency scores significantly correlated with IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot responses. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Negative Regulation of Type I IFN Expression by OASL1 Permits Chronic Viral Infection and CD8+ T-Cell Exhaustion
Researchers explored whether 2′-5′ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1), a recently defined interferon (IFN)-I negative regulator, plays a key role in the virus-specific T-cell response and viral defense against chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. [PLoS Pathog] Full Article

A Mouse Model for Human Norovirus
The authors found that human norovirus (HuNoV) replication in BALB/c Rag-γc-deficient mice is dependent on the immune-deficient status of the host but not on the presence of human immune cells and provides the first genetically manipulable small-animal model for studying HuNoV infection. [mBio]
Abstract
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Human Cytomegalovirus Viral IL-10 Polarizes Monocytes towards a Deactivated M2c Phenotype to Repress Host Immune Responses
Skewing of polarization towards an M2 subset may benefit a virus by limiting the pro-inflammatory responses to infection and so the authors determined whether human cytomegalovirus encoded viral interleukin (IL)-10 influenced monocyte polarization. Recombinant viral IL-10 protein polarized CD14+ monocytes towards an anti-inflammatory M2 subset with an M2c phenotype, as demonstrated by high expression of CD163 and CD14, and suppression of MHC class II. [J Virol] Abstract

HIV

Bispecific Antibodies Directed to CD4 Domain 2 and HIV Envelope Exhibit Exceptional Breadth and Picomolar Potency against HIV-1
Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, investigators created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab, a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Antiretroviral Therapy Initiated within Six Months of HIV Infection Is Associated with Lower T-Cell Activation and Smaller HIV Reservoir Size
Researchers investigated whether very early antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Vaccine-Induced Gag-Specific T Cells Are Associated with Reduced Viremia after HIV Infection
Scientists assessed whether vaccine-induced T-cell immunity, or expression of certain HLA alleles, impacted HIV control post-infection in the Step MRKAd5/HIV-1 gag/pol/nef Study. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

CCL19 and CCL28 Augment Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses to HIV-1 gp140 by Mobilizing Responsive Immunocytes into Secondary Lymph Nodes and Mucosal Tissue
Scientists investigated whether plasmid codelivery of cytokines APRIL, CCL19, or CCL28 can enhance Ag-induced immune responses to HIV-1 gp140. Their results demonstrated that pCCL19 and pCCL28, but not pAPRIL, significantly enhanced Ag-specific systemic and mucosal Ab responses. [J Immunol] Abstract

HIV-1 Vpr Modulates Macrophage Metabolic Pathways: A SILAC-Based Quantitative Analysis
The authors aimed to use a stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to characterize the Vpr response in macrophages. Cultured human monocytic cells, U937, were differentiated into macrophages and transduced with adenovirus construct harboring the Vpr gene. [PLoS One] Full Article

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A New System for High-Throughput Cell Isolation Directly from Whole Blood
 
REVIEWS
Tolerance Has Its Limits: How the Thymus Copes with Infection
Resolving infection in the thymus is important because chronic persistence of microbes impairs the differentiation of pathogen-specific T cells and diminishes resistance to infection. Understanding how these mechanisms contribute to disease susceptibility, particularly in infants with developing T cell repertoires, requires further investigation. [Trends Immunol] Abstract

Adipose Tissue and Immune Function: A Review of Evidence Relevant to HIV Infection
Relationships between body composition and lymphocyte populations, cellular immune activation, and immune reconstitution in HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy suggest that adipose tissue may also affect cellular immune function. This is further supported by in vitro studies demonstrating the effect of adipocytes and adipokines on lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and activation. [J Infect Dis] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the infectious disease research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
BMC/BUSM Researcher Receives NIH Grant to Study Gonococcal Vaccine Development
Lee Wetzler, MD, at Boston Medical Center (BMC) and associate program director for research in the section of infectious diseases at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), was awarded a four-year, $2.35 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study the development of a gonococcal vaccine. [Boston University Medical Campus] Press Release

NIMBioS at the University of Tennessee Wins $18 Million Renewal Award from National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation has awarded $18.6 million to the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, for the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) to continue its interdisciplinary efforts in developing new mathematical approaches to problems across biology, from the level of the genome to individuals to entire ecosystems. [National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis] Press Release

MBio Diagnostics, Inc. Receives NIH Award for POC HIV Device
MBio Diagnostics, Inc. announced that it has received an award from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, a division of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to develop a low-cost, point-of-care (POC), HIV antigen/antibody combination diagnostic device. The two-year, $1.4 million award will continue work from a Phase I NIH project in which research and development of a POC antigen/antibody combination diagnostic device met or exceeded technical milestones. [MBio Diagnostics, Inc.] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
U.S. Congress Moves Closer to Lifting Ban on Transplanting Organs from HIV-Positive Donors
U.S. House of Representatives committee unanimously approved a bill approving transplants using organs taken from people infected with HIV. The HIV Organ Policy Equity Act would lift a nearly three-decade-old federal ban on such transplants and allow expanded research into the outcomes of transplant patients. [United States House of Representatives, United States] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2013 Australasian HIV & AIDS Conference
October 21-23, 2013
Darwin, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the infectious disease community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Position – Study of the Loading of Antigens and Immunomodulating Agents in Nanoparticles for Improved Delivery of Antigens in Mucosa (Universite Lille 2 Droit et Sante)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pathogenesis of AIDS (Ulm University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Virus Host Interactions (CIBIO – University of Trento)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Humoral Responses against HIV (Seattle BioMed)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

Research Scientist/Senior Research Officer – Monoclonal Antibodies (Bioprocessing Technology Institute/A*STAR)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immune Responses against HIV (HIV Pathogenesis Program/University KwaZulu Natal & Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard)

Junior or Senior Group Leader – Immunology/Infection/Inflammation (Center of Pathophysiology of Toulouse Purpan)


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